The presence of a home aquarium, even with the most exotic fish in our day will not surprise anyone. But the crayfish in the aquarium are still rare guests, despite the relative simplicity and low cost of keeping them at home.
Crayfish in the aquarium - content
There are about 100 varieties of crayfish in the world, most of which are quite suitable for home breeding. Decorative crayfish in an aquarium, the content of which does not require any special skills or tremendous funds, thanks to unusual brightly colored shells and funny habits are an interesting subject for observation. For exotic inhabitants to feel quite comfortable it will take a bit - a spacious aquarium and well-chosen neighbors.
To adapt to the new conditions of life for cancer as gently as possible, it is better to acquire a young individual. It is better to transport it in a darkened tank, and when settling in a home aquarium, you must ensure that the difference in water temperature does not exceed 3-5 degrees. An adult individual may not survive the move from the store to the house or respond to a change in the situation of the disease.
What aquarium is needed for crayfish?
The aquaterrarium will become an ideal home for any crustacean. It is a large spacious tank, in which there is both a water zone and a space for air baths. Alternatively, in a normal aquarium, a platform can be strengthened above the surface of the water, where the crayfish will breathe air. But at the same time, it is necessary to block all possible escape routes for them, so for any discomfort (water pollution or overpopulation), the clawed pets will try to change their place of residence.
The crayfish do not like life in crowded areas, therefore a spacious aquarium with good aeration will be required. Capacity should be chosen at the rate of 15-20 liters per inhabitant, subject to regular water changes. The bottom must be covered with a layer of dense soil (in which crayfish can build their burrows) and be equipped with a number of shelters - decorative figurines, pipes, castles, etc. If reproduction of crayfish in an aquarium is planned, then such shelters need a lot. They will be hiding from the attacks of congeners first spawned female, and then young crustaceans.
Water for crayfish in an aquarium
The main trick, how to breed crayfish in an aquarium, is in properly selected conditions. Most of them prefer cool, pure aquatic environment with high hardness. To increase the level of rigidity you need to lay out the limestone or marble pieces along the bottom. If the crustaceans in the aquarium do not stay for a long time (they get sick and die), the level of copper and / or ammonia is likely to be increased there, the sensitivity to which is significantly increased in fresh water. Crayfish in an aquarium tend to make “closets” with supplies, so it will have to be cleaned often.
Caring for crayfish in an aquarium
Let us dwell on how to care for crayfish in an aquarium. Care of them consists of the following steps:
- Aquarium arrangement. As mentioned above, the bottom must necessarily be covered with a layer of dense soil with a lot of shelters. In the aquarium it is necessary to provide an aeration system, an area for air baths and a secure lid.
- Feeding. Crayfish in the aquarium, as in nature, lead a twilight lifestyle. Therefore, it is necessary to feed them once a day - in the evening, using a mixture of vegetable and animal feed. Cancers during the breeding season and young cancerous growths can be fed more often - 1 time in 12 hours.
- Cleaning the aquarium. Cancers tend to equip the storage of supplies that decompose, pollute the water. It will be necessary to clean the aquarium with enviable regularity in order to avoid an unpleasant smell from water and the death of its inhabitants. Together with food and plants, the causative agents of diseases deadly for cancer — the plague and the rust-spotted disease — can enter the aquarium. For disinfection in the water is recommended to add the leaves of oak, almond or beech.
What to feed the crayfish in the aquarium?
Feeding crayfish in an aquarium can be produced as natural food, as well as ready-made food:
- Protein food crayfish in an aquarium should not receive more than once every 7-10 days. It can be pieces of lean meat, shrimp, fish, and sinking granules. It is noticed that an excess of protein turns the already aggressive creatures into real fighters, which in a closed environment can lead to their complete self-destruction.
- Plant foods are required in the diet of most crustaceans. They will like pieces of scalded zucchini, cabbage, nettles and carrots. Without such feeding, crayfish will destroy all vegetation in an aquarium, undermining its roots and nibbling leaves.
- Ready-made feeds for crayfish are produced by Dennerle, Tetra, MOSURA, Genchem companies in the form of non-soaking granules or sticks. Such feeds contain all the nutrients necessary for cancers, while they do not have a strong odor and do not pollute the aquarium.
Who do the crayfish live with in an aquarium?
Although it is tempting to share the cancer in the aquarium with your favorite fish, it is better not to. The outcome of this neighborhood will not be the best - either the crayfish in the aquarium will destroy the fish population, or they will die. Thus, large ornamental fish often remain without fins on the first night, while small ones simply disappear. Crayfish themselves suffer from the neighborhood with predatory fish - due to their sluggishness, they simply sit starving. Therefore, crayfish at home in aquariums can coexist only with their own kind, and then only if there is enough free space.
Crayfish in the aquarium - species
To give any room an exotic look, to become its peculiar highlight, decorative crayfish in an aquarium are capable, the content of which will not cause difficulties for any aquarist, even the most inexperienced. Choosing a type of pet, you should start from its size - the more cancer, the more spacious it will need an aquarium. If the problem of living space for a pet is not urgent, you can be guided only by color preferences, choosing a variety according to the color of the shell.
Marble crayfish in an aquarium
In the initial stage of crustacean entrainment, small crayfish are ideal for an aquarium, for example, a marble. This initially river dweller feels great as a pet if he is provided with a spacious aquarium (20-30 liters per individual) and regular feeding. Under good conditions, each individual proceeds to self-reproduction (partogenesis), the first signs of which are the desire for solitude. During this period, the cancer is better to be planted in a small separate aquarium, and after hatching the crustaceans, it is necessary to return it back, leaving the young growth alone.
Dwarf crayfish in an aquarium
Luisian dwarf crayfish are famous for their power and livability with other aquatic creatures, in an aquarium whose content requires water with a temperature of 19-21 ° C and diffused illumination. The life of this species of crustaceans is not long - from one and a half to two and a half years. To reproduce the offspring of females in the aquarium should be twice the number of males. The mating season begins immediately after molting and is accompanied by an interesting courtship ritual. Dwarf crayfish in an aquarium are mostly vegetarians, they should be fed once every 18-24 hours with plant food.
Red florida aquarium content
Red crayfish in an aquarium is good because it can be kept in company with fish. Especially successful is the neighborhood with barbs, cichlids and gourami. The life span of a Florida cancer in captivity can reach three years, provided that it has the right conditions: water with a temperature of 23-27 ° C, sufficient aeration and good nutrition. You can feed such a pet with pieces of fish, meat, various vegetables and porridges boiled in water (pearl-barley, buckwheat, rice). Such a cancer can live alone, or in small groups, where there should be two females for each male.
Mexican crayfish in the aquarium
Lake and river inhabitants, Mexican ornamental crayfish in the aquarium are tolerated quite calmly. These are peace-loving creations of a small (up to 5 cm) size, whose lifespan does not exceed three years. They can be settled together with fish (except for predators) and other representatives of crustaceans. Feed Mexican crayfish should be mixed foods (animal and vegetable). For a comfortable life in captivity, they need a bit: a regular change of water, feeding and diffused lighting.
Cuban crab in aquarium
Blue crayfish in nature prefer to splash in the sun-warmed waters of the Cuban coast. How to care for crayfish in an aquarium? For living at home they will need a spacious (80-100 liters for 4-5 individuals) aquarium with clean, lightly salted water (you can use regular table salt). Cuban crayfish grow in the aquarium very quickly and are ready to breed in a year. In food unpretentious - eagerly eats offal, frozen meat and fish, ready-made food and vegetables.
California cancer in aquarium
California (Florida) snow cancer - a product of creativity of American breeders. In their work, they achieved an unusual white and blue color of the shell of brown under natural conditions of cancer. Artificially-born, Californian snow cancer in an aquarium requires the most common: a spacious aquarium with high-rigidity water saturated with oxygen, regular feeding of mixed food and the ability to hide in some sort of shelter. The lifespan of Californian crayfish does not exceed three years.
Caring for fish in an aquarium begins already from the moment of choosing a habitat for them. The duration and quality of life of pets depends on it. In order for the marine animals to be comfortable, it is important to take into account the shape, size and volume of the future vessel.
When purchasing an aquarium The following points should be considered:
- Before you go shopping, you must first determine the size and number of future inhabitants themselves. The larger the fish size, the more voluminous the vessel should be. For example, pets up to 5 cm will need about five liters of liquid for vital activity.
- Deciding on the choice of the shape of the aquarium, it is necessary to consider the moments of cleaning and maintenance. Most preferred is the standard rectangular shape of the vessel.
- Landscape design is also important, it should be given due attention. Many species of marine life will need shelters in the form of thickets or stones. Others prefer open space. This point should also be considered.
Vessel fluid replacement
Keeping aquarium fish at home is not difficult. One of the main factors for the safe living of marine life is water, which must be defended.
It is necessary to defend water for about two or three days. During this time bleach has time to disappear and the liquid takes the proper level of purity.
In order not to lose this amount of time, water can be heated to seventy degrees and cooled to room temperature. It also helps to get rid of excess oxygen, which is harmful to aquarium inhabitants.
Preventive cleaning of the aquarium should be carried out no more than once a week and not in full. It is forbidden to change the fluid often and completely. Fresh water must be poured little by little and only after the bottom of the vessel has been cleaned.
In the event that the liquid in the aquarium began to cloud, you should not panic instantly, as in some cases this is due to the remnants of dry food, and not due to the multiplication of bacteria.
In such cases do the following:
- clean the bottom of the vessel from contamination
- Do not feed the fish dry food for some time,
- do evacuate marine animals until habitat restoration.
If after some time the turbidity does not pass, it is worth doing a comprehensive cleaning of the vessel.
Keeping fish in an aquarium is not that difficult; they do not need excessive care, but they require some daily care and attention. In the daily care instructions The following points are included:
- Maintain the required water temperature.
- Checking the status of the filter, compressor, lighting.
- Tracking the level of fluid in the vessel.
- Supervision over soil and cleaning of pollution.
Feed fish should be twice a day - in the morning and evening. It must be remembered that they are prone to overeating, because of which they can easily die.
For this reason, it is forbidden to sprinkle food in excess. And after the feeding is completed, it is necessary to catch the net floating on the surface of the water with a net.
Depending on the type of fish, Every day you need to monitor the temperature of the liquid in the aquarium, as most species of marine life need warm water. It is not recommended to place individuals with different temperature preferences in one tank.
It is necessary to maintain all the parameters of the environment to which pets are accustomed. Checking the condition of the filter is also carried out daily with a cleaning if it is clogged.
If the room where the aquarium, dark, then you need to turn on the backlight. Do not forget about maintaining a constant level of liquid in the vessel.
The choice of lighting
Do not forget to properly care for the fish in the aquarium. The choice of lighting is also included in the mandatory care for its inhabitants.
Most of the fish do not require much additional light, while others are not able to do without illumination, even in daytime. In the event that the aquarium is located in a dark corner of the room, then additional lighting should be around the clock.
The most suitable lighting option - 0.5 W per liter of fluid. But it should also take into account the depth of the aquarium and the habitat of its inhabitants.
It is possible to determine the redundancy or insufficiency of illumination experimentally. If the aquarium is excessively lit, the water will begin to bloom, if there is a lack of light, brownish spots may appear on the walls of the vessel, and the fish will have difficulty breathing.
Feeding close to natural conditions
Crayfish has a well-developed sense of smell. Under natural conditions, they quickly find a rotten fish, rather than fresh, because its smell becomes more pronounced as it decomposes. In the rivers, you can most often see them fighting just at the old fish carcass.
Their vision is also well developed. So, seeing something red, crayfish will definitely try it, taking a foreign object for a piece of meat.
Despite their promiscuity and the desire to eat everything fragrant and red, there is still one aspect that is necessary when feeding them. These animals often eat algae rich in lime. They need it for the healthy growth of their shell, especially this “building material” they need during the molting period, when they drop their old “armor” and grow a new one. These plants include:
- Species of plants,
In addition to crayfish, almost no one eats these plants, because the increased content of lime gives them rigidity, which these crustaceans do not disdain. It is worth considering when feeding them at home. Try to increase the amount of lime in the crayfish feed.
In addition to plants, crayfish eat a variety of aquatic animals, especially for young. As food, they are suitable for different types of invertebrates, such as daphnia and cyclops. Snails, worms, various larvae and, if lucky, tadpoles of small fish can also become food.
Even in the pond, it is desirable to breed phyto- and zooplankton. To such a neighborhood crayfish are extremely positive. These species serve as food both for the crayfish themselves and for their prey.
It is not for nothing that the young were mentioned above, because with age, the preferences for food in crayfish change a lot, so at each age they need a certain diet:
- Yearlings. At this age, daphnids constitute 59% of the ration of crayfish, and chironomids account for 25%.
- Upon reaching a length of 2 centimeters, various insect larvae are included in the food, which can make up to 45% of the total diet.
- A field of three centimeters in length of the fingerling begins to eat mollusks.
- Reaching 4 cm, they begin to eat fish.
- When crayfish become young (8-10 cm in length), bokoplavy predominate in their diet, their percentage can be up to 63 of the total number of food.
If at home you create conditions for crayfish close to natural, their diet will be restored by 90%, which will ensure their stable and healthy growth, and you will save not a small amount of money.
Artificial feeding and bait
If at home you do not have the opportunity to create favorable conditions for crayfish, then you should pay attention to artificial feeds that your pets eat.
First of all, make sure that in which places they gather more often, and try to throw food in this particular area. Также стоит помнить то, что раки являются ночными животными, и поэтому корм для них лучше насыпать с вечера.
Сеголеток лучше всего кормить:
- Фаршем (рыбным, мясным),
- Вареными овощами,
- Комбикормом, для растительноядных рыб.
Важно исключить различную жирную пищу, которая может загубить воду, что приведет к мору. Для более быстрого темпа роста сеголеток в домашних условиях, к пище можно добавлять различные подкормки.
В качестве искусственного питания для взрослых раков лучше всего подойдут:
- Испорченное мясо,
- Тухловатая рыба,
- Обрезки овощей,
- Вымоченные злаковые,
- Куски хлеба.
Кроме этого, в пищу им могут подойти:
From the diet, it can be understood that crawfishes like creepiness like various carrion, however, it is worth remembering that this kind of food pollutes the aquarium. In order to avoid rapid spoilage of water, at home it is advisable to address as little as possible to the meat that has died as food at home. And this dish should be served in a special feeder, which you can make at home on your own.
Take the old board, preferably 10-15 cm wide, saw off a piece of about 20 cm and nail the sides of the boards, no higher than 2 centimeters. The feeder is ready, nothing complicated.
It is difficult to say about the amount of feed needed for one individual cancer, however, it is worth considering that it is impossible to feed these animals in the presence of food in the feeder. Water clarity will help determine this:
- If you see the feeder, and it is empty, then boldly give the crayfish a new portion of food.
- If the water is cloudy, then you should pull out the feeder and check if you need fertilizing.
In both cases, you should remember a simple rule - it is better to underfeed, rather than leave extra pieces of food in the aquarium. Old food in the process of decomposition will clog the water, after which it can develop pathogenic bacteria, which will lead to a mora of crayfish.
Some useful information
It is worth remembering that in summer you need a greater amount of food, since in winter crayfish do not grow or shed, which means the need for food from them is much lower. And if you breed crayfish at home in an environment close to natural, then for the winter period, the bait should be stopped completely, but it is better to start it in March or April.
Feeding crayfish with proper preparation is not only not difficult, but also quite economical. Their diet hits the wallet much less than the food for many types of aquarium fish.
Content aquarium crayfish
If you create a comfortable environment, care for the crayfish in the aquarium does not cause any difficulties. We are talking about dwarf species that easily get along with many types of fish. Crayfish are best kept in separate tanks.
Conventional arthropods are accustomed to the natural habitat in which the soil is present. For crayfish of this species, conditions should be created in which the presence of plants and a sandy bottom will be required.
The volume of the tank must be greater than 70 liters. The presence of filtering apparatus and aeration of water.
Soil is an integral element of the tank when keeping aquarium crayfish. Its height should not be less than 6 centimeters. They lead a cautious lifestyle and spend most of their time in shelter. Minks and caves are often dug, so the soil component should be soft and comfortable. As such material suitable river pebbles, pieces of red brick or artificial filler. If not, then you can apply pre-soaked clay.
Decorative crayfish build their shelters near coals and plants. The burrow is located directly at the rhizome, as it prevents the destruction of the structure. Thickets are a favorite place for crayfish, therefore their presence in the reservoir is a necessary condition. Replacing the soil with decorative ceramic shelters will not save from digging mink. It can only serve as a good defense, especially for dwarf swamp crayfish.
Plants maintain the necessary balance in the aquarium and are an important part of the ecosystem. Algae must have strong roots and large leaves. Aponogonetons and cryptocorins are well suited for this. Care should be taken of the plants, as digging holes can damage the algae root.
Depending on the volume of the aquarium, water filtration activity is calculated. Bacterial outbreaks often occur in crayfish tanks. This is due to the fact that the food particles hidden by the creatures in the burrows begin to decompose gradually. Biological filters do not cope with their task. As a result, the water becomes cloudy and begins to smell unpleasant. In such cases, the filtering apparatus must be installed without fail. Neglect of this factor will lead to the disease of crustaceans and other creatures of the ornamental basin.
When the level of microbes increases, the water in the tank needs to be changed. For this well suited liquid, taken from another tank with fish. It will help restore biobalance. The water in which the crayfish live must be changed once a month. Due to this, the amount of harmful toxins and nitrates in the tank is reduced, and oxygen increases, which favorably affects the growth of algae.
A prerequisite is compliance with hydrochemical parameters of water. Crustacean unpretentious creatures, but should create conditions that are as close as possible to the natural habitat.
The water temperature should be in the range of 20-26 degrees. The level of acidity is required to maintain at the level of 5-8 pH. Stiffness does not play a special role, but very soft water adversely affects the body of crayfish, especially during periods of molting.
The level of illumination does not have a significant effect on the state of the crustaceans, since they are nocturnal.
How many raki live at home
There are many factors that affect the longevity of crustaceans. The main thing is the purity of the water. Crayfish can live up to 25 years. Wastewater has a negative effect on the body and rapidly shorten the life of an animal.
In captivity live crayfish not as long as in their natural habitat. This is due to the hydrochemical composition of water. It can be difficult to pick up. With the right ratio of temperature and hardness, crayfish can live in tanks for 2–5 years.
A crayfish mite is common. Throughout life, arthropods grow. Chitinous cover does not allow this to be done, as it is hard. In connection with this, cancer needs to be dumped regularly.
During molting, the arthropods lose their activity and spend most of their time in shelter. If, instead of a pet, only its shell has been seen, do not be intimidated, this is a natural process of the organism of the crustaceans. Cleaning the old chitinous cover is not worth it, since it will be eaten by arthropods. After molting, young crayfish need a large amount of calcium, which will help to quickly recover a new coating.
In the first stages of their lives, arthropods molt 5–6 times. After several years, this operation is repeated 2 times a year. The process itself lasts only a couple of minutes. New cover is fully restored after 7–10 days.
How to feed aquarium crayfish
In the wild, crabs eat almost everything. The main factor is that food does not contain chemical and synthetic additives. In nature, they can be eaten:
- small fish
- invertebrate animals.
In an aquarium, feeding crayfish should be approached with special care. It is best to purchase special food for crustaceans at the pet store. As well as food, you can use pressed tablets, which include crushed plants and calcium. It helps arthropods quickly recover their shell after molting.
In addition to algae and plants, crayfish feed on vegetables. You can include in the diet pieces of zucchini and cucumber. In addition to vegetable food, it is recommended to give food of protein nature. These can be frozen shrimps. Eating protein food causes aggression of crustaceans, so you do not need to overfeed them.
Feed required once a day. Make sure the animals eat everything. Residues are removed from the reservoir, as they gradually decompose and pollute the water.
The most common types
Aquarium crayfish are used quite often as pets. There are about a hundred varieties of arthropods. Each of them requires special care and feeding. Some types of aquarium crayfish are not impressive in size and can be kept with other inhabitants of the reservoirs. Consider the most famous representatives of arthropods:
Florida Californian cancer has a peculiarity - the bright red color of the calf. It adapts well to various living conditions, unpretentious in care and nutrition. The length of the body varies from 13 to 15 centimeters. The aquarium should be closed, as representatives of this species can escape from the reservoir.
Louisiana dwarf crayfish lives in rivers and lakes of Texas, USA. The body length is 3 centimeters. These individuals are similar in size to dwarf swamp cancers. A characteristic feature for him is the presence of a dark spot on the shell. The back is studded with small black dots. Due to its small body length, it gets along well with fish and does not pose any danger to them. It uses dead algae, pieces of dead fish as feed. The average lifespan of this species is two years. For a comfortable life you need shelters.
Blue Florida cancer derived artificially. In the wild has a brown color. The tail part is a little lighter than the head. This species can grow to 10 centimeters. It lives in Florida. In a natural environment loves wastewater. A variety of shelters should be installed in tanks, as this species is aggressive. Males are not inferior to their territory of another individual. There is often a fight between the parties, during which arthropods cause serious injuries to each other. You should not keep them together with fish, as at night crayfish hunt. Fish, mollusks, special food in tablets are used as food.
Marble cancer got its name due to an unusual color. Live in fresh water. The size of the crayfish does not exceed 15 centimeters. The body is colored green, black or brown. The main feature is a pattern on the back, which resembles stains on marble. It is clearly manifested in adults. At birth, it is almost imperceptible. Like his relatives, he is nocturnal. For full development, several times a month should be included in the diet of protein foods. In everyday life, as a feed, you can use plants, shabby carrots, pieces of zucchini.
Orange Mexican dwarf crab lives in freshwater rivers and lakes. In the artificial environment, the female is larger than the male. Unpretentious to the conditions of detention and feels good in the standard hydrochemical indicators of water. It is necessary to breed these arthropods in large-volume aquariums. Loves to spend time in shelters. Life expectancy is on average two years. It feeds on plants, pieces of vegetables.
Crayfish in an aquarium requires compliance with some features of the content. The main condition is the presence of a large reservoir. They live at the bottom, therefore they require soil, snags, stones. In the daily diet there is more protein foods. Plants eat rarely, only in the absence of feed of animal origin. Collect from the bottom of fish food, dead mollusks and fish. In the presence of a large aquarium get on with the inhabitants.
Australian red-flesh red-flipper cancer lives in fresh water. In the process of life can grow up to 20 centimeters. The main feature is the presence of a red stripe on the claws. The habitat is the lakes of Australia. In the diet there is both protein and vegetable food. The body is colored bluish-green. She likes warm water and grows fast with good nutrition.
Blue Cuban cancer has a non-standard color. The coloring depends on the habitat and can be both light blue and brown. The body length is 12-15 centimeters. It lives in small ponds of Cuba. With good feeding, the individual does not conflict with fish and other inhabitants of the aquarium. Average life expectancy is 2-3 years.
White crayfish lives in rivers of Western Europe. The body length varies from 10 to 12 centimeters. Males have a brighter coloration. It has a white, red, orange color. It feeds on plant food, but it will not give up moth and chopped pieces of beef heart. Loves a little salted water of high rigidity.
Aquarium crayfish are interesting pets. The breeding of individuals will not cause problems when creating the proper conditions. Sometimes it is not possible to carry out this process, since all inhabitants are same-sex.
The size of individuals, as well as the conditions of detention vary significantly between species. Most crustaceans reach sexual maturity on reaching three months of age. Male individuals ready for breeding can also be recognized by the bright red stripes on claws. There must be at least 2 females per male, as after fertilization he can eat it.
The breeding season basically begins after molting. The female produces enzymes that attract male individuals. The marriage ritual is expressed by touching each other with antennas and can last a couple of hours. After the end of the female should be transplanted into another container.
After 20-25 days, the individual lays eggs. The female during the carrying is inactive and prefers to be in the shelter. After birth, babies are located on the abdomen of the individual up to the molt. At first, babies are helpless. It is necessary to equip the aquarium with shelters so that while dropping the shell the newborns hide from their fellows and not become food.
After the second molt, the female is deposited, as the racats become more independent. As you grow, you need to frequently change the water. After a few months, the offspring are transplanted in reservoirs, as in one container they become cramped.
Read more about reproduction of crayfish in an aquarium in a separate article.
Compatibility of aquarium crayfish with fish
Aquarium crayfish can live with fish. Often, a successful existence with other inhabitants may depend on several factors. In the aquarium with fish, small dwarf shrimps can live without any problems, the size of which does not exceed 3 centimeters. Massive individuals conflict with other animals and often eat them. Compatibility with fish is achieved only in individuals whose diet does not contain protein. Sometimes even such cohabitation does not end in success. It happens that the crabs reluctantly bit a claw fish, swam to the bottom of the reservoir. To avoid trouble, it is better for them to live in different aquariums.
Sometimes a large fish kills crustaceans. This occurs during the molting period, when there is no protective layer on the body of the arthropod.
With other inhabitants
Often, arthropods conflict not only with fish, but also with other inhabitants of the aquarium.
Keep them with shrimp - to no avail, as crayfish eat them.
They dig up some aquarium plants and love to dig mink under the roots of algae. And also actively use them for food.
Various diseases of crustaceans are associated with inappropriate conditions. The presence of chemical compounds in water adversely affects the development and reproduction of individuals.
An infectious disease called crustacean plague is quite dangerous. The only sick individual is able to infect the rest, and therefore the number of inhabitants is sharply reduced. The disease is caused by the fungus Aphanomices astaci. It proceeds in an acute form, paralyzing the nervous system of arthropods. There is no cure for the virus.
From untreated soil to the aquarium with crayfish spores of fungi. They affect the heart and blood vessels. Recognize the disease can be on the brown spots located on the gills. Initially, the cancer becomes sluggish, and after a while dies.
Porcelain disease causes paralysis of limbs of arthropods: the oral apparatus is affected, the belly becomes white. The patient is recommended to move into a separate container. The treatment for this disease is not found.
Compatibility of crayfish with fish
At once we will say that this neighborhood often brings only problems. There are, of course, cases when crayfish coexist well with fish. But even more situations where one or the other side suffers as a result of such a tandem. For example:
- Soma - arthropods' competitors for food and shelter. Collisions on this ground are inevitable.
- Small fish like neons, guppies, etc. can be crayfish elementary eaten.
- Large fish with long tails and fins (gold, angelfish, etc.) can lose their wealth.
- In the vicinity of large, but aggressive fish like cichlids, crayfish are doomed to hunger and stress, and ultimately to death.
How to create conditions in the aquarium?
From the place of purchase to the place of residence of arthropods transported in a black opaque package. Adaptation is fast. It should be borne in mind that the temperature difference in the package and in an artificial reservoir should not be more than three degrees. The following conditions are considered optimal for cancers:
Aquarium. The minimum volume of the tank must be at least 15 liters per 6 cm specimen. However, given that close housing provokes crayfish to aggression, it is better to take a vessel as spacious as possible. From above, it is imperative to install a cover with small holes, as in case of overpopulation, the crayfish will be trying to get out of the aquarium when overcrowded, the water is dirty or oxygen-poor. Если есть возможность, то самый лучший вариант – это оборудовать акватеррариум.
Вода должна быть чистая, богатая кислородом, с температурой в диапазоне 17-21 градусов и жесткостью 8-12. Для увеличения жесткости в грунт можно положить мрамор или известняк. Фильтр лучше установить внутренний, чтобы пресечь попытки побега по проводам. Раки любят прятать остатки пищи, которые потом загнивают и портят воду. В связи с этим необходима регулярная подмена 50% воды.
Грунт лучше выбирать крупный. Раки роют норы, и в мелком грунте не укоренится ни одно растение.
Растительность лучше подбирать с крепкими корнями, крупными листьями и прочными стеблями. Перед посадкой их следует подержать в карантине.
Оформление. В качестве декораций можно использовать различные камни, коряги, шланги, половинки керамических цветочных горшков, гроты и т. д. Of these, crayfish build shelters for themselves and climb them to the surface of the water.
What to feed the crayfish?
It is better to do this in the evening hours, as the daytime crayfish hide. If arthropods coexist with fish, in the latter by the evening the activity decreases, and they will not drag feed from claw carriers from under the nose.
Despite the fact that aquarium arthropods are omnivorous, there are some nutritional recommendations for them.
As a delicacy, you can sometimes treat yourself to fish or squid. Interestingly, crayfish prefer food in a slightly rotten state. Protein bait is given no more than once a week, as it is noticed that it increases the level of aggression.
Special feeds for crayfish and shrimp are also available, which can also be used (for example, such brands as Dennerle, Tetra, MOSURA, Genchem Biomax series). They strengthen the immune system, maintain the brightness of pet coloring. There are granules, plates, sticks.
As for the frequency of meals, there is no unity of views. In some sources, it is recommended to feed females once every three days, males - once every two days. Others advise for both sexes meals once a day. Therefore, here you can see for yourself the behavior of your pets and by trial and error will select your ideal schedule.
Epistylis (lat. Epistylis)
This disease is very common in aquarium arthropods. The reason is the poor conditions in the aquarium. The simplest microorganisms settle on chitinous integuments, as a result of which the cancer looks covered with brown or grayish-white foam. If this plaque spreads to the gills, then the animal will not be able to breathe and will die. For recovery, it is necessary to put in order the water and the number of inhabitants in the aquarium. At the time of illness, the animal is quarantined.
Microscopic flatworm Temnocephalan worms that reach them through snails, Branchiobdella leeches and green algae living on the gills can plague the crayfish. You can get rid of them with regular salt baths and reducing the number of neighbors carriers.
Recognize it only during the molting period. If the cancer shell does not harden for more than a day, then this is it. Causes: insufficient water hardness, poor nutrition and, as a result, lack of calcium. Treatment methods are obvious: create the right conditions for life and balance nutrition. As a preventive measure, you can use iodine drops for a marine aquarium, which are sold in pet stores. They drop half the dose.
It is an acute infectious disease. It is caused by the mushroom Aphanomices astaci. The disease is contagious and can kill all the inhabitants of the aquarium. Walking legs, armor and nervous system are affected. If a cancer has become infected, white, brown or red spots appear on its tail, and black spots on its shell. At the onset of the disease, disorientation occurs when walking, the lifestyle changes during the daytime. In the end - sluggish behavior, convulsions and death of the animal. There is no treatment as such. There are only recommendations to keep the newly acquired quarantined pet in water at 30 degrees with the addition of magnesium chloride or malachite green.
Also has an infectious nature. Pathogens - fungi of the family Mucedinaceae. Spots appear on the body of the cancer (orange, brown, black), then the shell in these places softens and the tissue dies out with the formation of ulcers. The end result will be the death of the animal. There is no cure. As in the previous case, the quarantine of a new cancer with the addition of leaves of oak, beech, and almond was recommended.
It affects the limbs, abdomen and oral apparatus. Cancer paralyzes and he dies. There is no cure. Patients are isolated.
Spores can get into an aquarium with inadequate and poorly treated soil and plants. Mushrooms affect integuments, gills, blood vessels and heart. Brown spots can be seen on the belly and gills. Reduced immunity, injuries, unfavorable conditions - all this places crayfish at risk.
Thus, crayfish can trap a lot of hazards. But mostly these are consequences of poor care. A responsible owner, they will long please their unusual appearance and interesting behavior.
Content in an aquarium
One cancer can be kept in a small aquarium. If you regularly replace the water, then enough 30-40 liters. Crayfish hide their food, and you can often find remains in a shelter such as a cave or a pot. And given the fact that there are a lot of food residues, then in an aquarium with crayfish the balance can be very quickly disturbed and frequent water changes with a ground siphon are simply necessary. When you clean the aquarium, be sure to check all its caches, such as pots and other hidden places.
If more than one cancer lives in an aquarium, then the minimum volume for keeping 80 liters. Crayfish are cannibals by nature, that is, they eat each other, and if during the molt one of them gets to the other, then it will not be worth it. Because of this, it is extremely important that the aquarium was spacious and there were many different shelters in which a molded cancer could hide.
As for filtering, it is better to use an internal filter. Since the hoses that go to the outside, this is a great way to get the cancer out of the aquarium and one morning you will see it crawling around your apartment. Remember, this is a master of escape! The aquarium should be tightly covered, since a runaway cancer can live for a short time without water.
Shooting in nature, Australia Euastacus spinifer cancer:
Many arthropods, including crayfish, shed. What it is? Since the chitinous cover of crayfish is tough, in order to grow, they need to be regularly discarded and covered with new ones. If you notice that the cancer is hiding more than usual, it means he was going to molt. Or, you suddenly saw that instead of a cancer you only have its shell in an aquarium ... Do not be intimidated and do not remove it! Crayfish eat shell after molting, as it contains a lot of calcium and helps to restore a new one. Full recovery after molting for cancer will take 3-4 days, provided that he can eat the old shell. Young crayfish molt often, but as they grow older, the frequency decreases.
Red Florida Cancer Shedding:
In nature, crayfish mainly feed on plant food. What to feed cancer? In the aquarium, they eat sinking granules, tablets, flakes, and special foods for crayfish and shrimp. It is also worth buying food for crayfish with a high content of calcium. Such feeds help them recover their chitinous cover faster after shedding. Additionally, they need to be fed with vegetables - spinach, zucchini, cucumbers. If you have an aquarium with plants, you can give surplus plants.
In addition to vegetables, they eat protein and feed, but they should not be given more than once a week. This may be a piece of fish fillet or shrimp, frozen live food. Aquarists believe that feeding crayfish with protein feed significantly increases their aggressiveness.
Feed the crayfish in the aquarium should be once a day, but when it comes to vegetables, a piece of cucumber, for example, you can leave it for the whole time until the crayfish eat it.
Is it possible to contain crayfish in an aquarium?
It is possible, but for a long time he does not live and definitely cannot be kept with fish and plants. Our crayfish is large and agile enough, it catches and eats fish, weeds weeds. It does not live long, because this species is cold-water, we have warm water only in summer, and even then, it is rather cold at the bottom. And in the aquarium is warmer than he needs. If you want to contain it, try it. But, only in a separate aquarium.
Florida (California) cancer (Procambarus clarkii)
Red Florida cancer is one of the most popular crayfish kept in an aquarium. They are popular for their color, bright red and unpretentiousness. In their homeland are very common and are considered an invasive species. As a rule, they live on the order of two to three years, or slightly longer and adapt perfectly to different conditions. Reach a body length of 12-15 cm. Like many crayfish, Florida masters of escape and the aquarium should be tightly covered.
Marble crayfish / Procambarus sp.
The peculiarity is that all individuals are females and can breed without a partner. Marble crayfish grow up to 15 cm in length, and you can read about the peculiarities of the content of marble crayfish here.
The destroyer apple has a beautiful blue color, which makes it quite popular. In nature, it lives about 4-5 years, but it can live much longer in an aquarium, at the same time it can reach 20 cm in length. The destructor lives in Australia, and the yabbi are called aborigines. The scientific name destructor is translated as a destroyer, although this is incorrect, as the apples are less aggressive than other types of crayfish. They live in nature in muddy water with a weak current and abundant water thickets.
It should be kept at a temperature of from 20 to 26C. It tolerates wide fluctuations in temperature, but at temperatures below 20 ° C, it stops growing and may die at temperatures above 26 ° C.
To compensate for the loss of juveniles, the female sweeps Catch from 500 to 1000 roach.
Blue Florida Cancer (Procambarus alleni)
In nature, this kind of ordinary, brown. Slightly darker on the cephalothorax and lighter on the tail. Blue cancer has conquered the whole world, but such coloring is artificially obtained. As it becomes clear from the name, blue cancer lives in Florida, and grows around 8-10 cm. Procambarus alleni inhabits the standing waters of Florida and digs short holes during the seasonal lowering of the water level. The number of juveniles that a female brings depends on her size and ranges from 100 to 150 roach, but large females are able to bring up to 300 roach. The first few weeks they grow very quickly and the young shed every couple of days.
Blue florida cancer
Louisiana Dwarf Cancer (Cambarellus shufeldtii)
This is a small red-brown or gray cancer with dark horizontal stripes along the body. Its claws are small, elongated and smooth. Life expectancy is about 15-18 months, with males living longer, but becoming mature later than females. This is a small cancer that grows up to 3-4 cm in length. Because of its size, it is one of the most peaceful crayfish that can be kept with different fish.
Dwells Louisiana cancer in the United States, in southern Texas, Alabama, Louisiana. Females live for up to a year, during which they lay their eggs twice, carrying them for about three weeks. Calf slightly, from 30 to 40 pieces.
Louisiana dwarf cancer
Australian Reddish (Red-fingered) Cancer (Cherax quadricarinatus)
Mature crayfish can easily be recognized by spiky outgrowths on claws from males, as well as bright red stripes on claws. The color ranges from bluish-green to almost black, with yellow spots on the shell. Dwells in the reddish crayfish in Australia, in the rivers of northern Queensland, where it is kept under the snags and stones, hiding from predators. It feeds mainly on detritus and small aquatic organisms, which it collects on the bottom of rivers and lakes. It grows up to 20 cm in length.
The female is very productive and lays from 500 to 1500 eggs, which are about 45 days.
Blue Cuban Cancer (Procambarus cubensis)
It lives only in Cuba. In addition to the attractive color, it is also interesting in that it grows only 10 cm long and the pair can be kept in a small aquarium. In addition, it is quite unpretentious and well tolerates the conditions of different content parameters.
True, despite the small size of the aquarium blue Cuban cancer, he is quite aggressive and eats aquarium plants.
Shedding aquarium crayfish
The growth of aquarium crayfish occurs between the molts. It is believed that in the first year of life, crayfish molt up to 8 times, in the second to 5, then -1-2 times a year. Castles, as well as weakened individuals, with a soft and unprotected body, require individual shelters (ceramic and plastic tubes, shells, etc.) where they, hiding from predators, must sit out until a new shell is formed. A new shell of crayfish is overgrown fairly quickly from 2 to 10 days.
Determining the approaching molt of crayfish (usually 2-3 days) is possible by refusing them from food and scratching movements of the back, and already a flowing molt to detect the removed shell, and the process of removing the shell lasts only a few minutes. The translucent shell looks like it is hard and clearly follows the form of cancer.
I had to observe the molting of aquarium crayfish several times, but the process of molting, that is, removing my shell with cancer, I never saw obviously that crayfish molted always at night. For the formation of a new shell requires a lot of calcium. Calcium from food and water is replenished with calcium in the body. Argued that the old shell contains a lot of calcium and cancers experiencing a deficiency in calcium shell eat.
For this reason, some aquarists do not deliberately remove the shell from the aquarium. Also, to replenish the body's calcium, an “Calcium-active” tablet is sometimes placed in the aquarium, and calcinated curd is included in the diet. When I kept aquarium crayfish, molting from them always went on without any complications and the calcium deficiency was never experienced by the crayfish.
Diseases of aquarium crayfish
Many diseases of aquarium crayfish are associated with unfavorable conditions of their maintenance. High levels of nitrate in water can lead to cancer and death. Infectious diseases, characterized by a decrease in fertility and population death. The most dangerous: the plague of cancers, rust-spotted disease and porcelain disease. Treatment for these diseases has not yet been developed.
Pesti astacorum, Aphanomices astaci - acute infectious disease caused by the fungus Aphanomices astaci. Susceptible to infection cancers of all ages. The pathogen can be transmitted through water animals and fishing gear. One cancer patient can infect the entire aquarium and cause the complete death of all its inhabitants. Crayfish infected with plague can be identified by white or brownish-red spots on the muscles of the tail, as well as black spots on the shell.
Changes are also noted in the behavior of crayfish: usually nocturnal, the crayfish are active during the day, trying to get out, “walking” becomes like walking on stilts, with noticeable signs of disorientation. Moves, relying on the elongated limbs and the end of the tail. Then note lethargy, cramping of the limbs. In the late stage, the crayfish cease to move, collapse on their backs, their limbs cramp, and the crayfish die.
The treatment is not developed. Prevention comes down to quarantining newly acquired cancers. Spores of the fungus are sensitive to high and low temperatures, die after 30 hours in water with a temperature of 30 ° C. Malachite green and magnesium chloride (bischofite) contribute to a decrease in sporulation.
Rusty-spotted disease or Septotsilindroz (Mycosis astacorum) - an infectious disease of cancers caused by various species of fungi of the family. Mucedinaceae. Mushrooms multiply conidia. The source of the causative agent of the disease is diseased cancers (mainly their corpses and shells, dropped after molting).
Infection occurs by eating invasive lower crustaceans or by direct contact of conidia of the fungus on the shell. Infection is promoted by unfavorable habitats of crayfish. The rust-spotted disease is manifested by rusty orange dark brown or black spots of various sizes on the body of the crayfish, and ulcers form in the places of muscle damage.
It happens that an infected cancer ulcers scar, forming a chitinous bump. But in other places fresh ulcers appear. Brownish or golden yellow seals are also formed in the liver of cancers. The fecundity of the crayfish decreases, the crayfish die slowly. The treatment is not developed. Prevention is the same as in case of plague of cancers - quarantine of newly acquired cancers for 3-4 weeks. Adding dried leaves of beech, oak or almond to the aquarium would be useful.
Porcelain Disease or Telohaniz (Thelochanosis) - Invasive crayfish disease caused by spore Thelochania conteyeani, with a characteristic lesion of the muscles of the oral apparatus, abdomen and limbs. Microsporidia penetrate the muscles of the abdomen, legs and oral apparatus. In diseased cancers, the lower abdomen becomes white. After infection with microsporidia of the fungus, the muscles of the legs, abdomen, and oral apparatus lose mobility and the paralyzed cancer dies. Infection occurs upon contact with a sick animal. Treatment and prevention are not developed.
Types of aquarium crayfish
There are many types of crayfish and it is not possible for me to describe them, but if you decide to start aquarium crayfish, then you first need to decide in which aquarium you will keep them with the fish or in a separate one? For keeping crayfish with fish, dwarf crayfish are best suited. These species of small crayfish, unlike their larger counterparts, spare aquatic vegetation and do not attack fish, and in some cases they also have to save dwarf crayfish from aggressive large fish and, if possible, not to keep them in one aquarium.
Dwarf crayfish are called the Cambarellus family. They are common in the US along the Mississippi River and in Mexico. The smallest members of this group grow up to 3 cm long, the largest up to 4.5 cm. Dwarf crayfish get along well with the aquarium population, without interfering with the surrounding life. Для содержания в отдельном аквариуме сойдут любые виды раков, но только если условия содержания для каждого отдельного вида соответствуют правильным.
Болотный карликовый рак (Cambarellus puer). Родина — Мексика и берега реки Миссисипи в США. Относится к семейству Cambarellus, имеющему в своём составе несколько родов. Красновато-коричневого до серого цвета, с парными темными, волнистыми полосами или пунктирной линией вдоль спинной поверхности. Хвост обычно имеет по центру темное пятно. Клещи у них узкие и длинные. Хорошо уживаются с небольшими миролюбивыми рыбками.
Самка болотного рака вырастает в длину до 3-4 сантиметров, а самцы 2-2,5 сантиметров. Условия содержания: Температура 15-27° C, dH 5-10°, рН 6,5-7,8. Любят рыть грунт. Грунт –песчаный или мелкая речная галька. Желательно большое количество укрытий — коряг, камней, раковин, пустых горшков и т. д. Аквариум от 60 литров для пяти-шести раков. Settling with a predominance of females where at least 2-3 females should fall on one male. Average life expectancy is 2 years.
Dwarf orange cancer (Cambarellus patzcuarensis). Very interesting type of aquarium crayfish. In nature, lives in rivers and lakes with fresh water, located in Mexico. In natural habitat, the female reaches 6 cm in length, and the male is 4–4.5 cm. Optimal conditions of maintenance: pH 7.0 - 8.5, dGH 10-20, water temperature 18 - 26 ° C. Aquarium from 60 l . Soil can be any. It is desirable to have a large number of shelters and good filtration and aeration. Compatible with all non-aggressive fish. Sexual maturity is reached at the age of 3.5 - 4 months. Young females bring 10 - 15 pieces, more mature - up to fifty. Life expectancy of 1.5-2 years.
Dwarf blue cancer (Cambarellus diminutus). Habitat Gulf of Mexico. Dimensions: 2.5 cm. Optimum conditions of containment: Temperature 15-27 ° C, dH 5-10 °, pH 6.5-7.8. Interspecies aggression is weak. Aquarium from 60 liters at least fifty centimeters in length, with the presence of snags and stones, separating the bottom of the territory. Shelters and shelters are needed. Required weekly 25% water changes. Content with not large not aggressive small fishes. Life expectancy up to 3 years.
Louisiana dwarf cancer (Cambarellus shufeldtii). Grows up to 3 cm in length. Dwells Louisiana cancer in the United States, in southern Texas, Alabama, Louisiana. Optimum conditions of maintenance: Aquarium from 60 liters. The water temperature is 20-25 ° C, dH 5-10 °, pH 6.5-7. Aquarium from 60 liters. Soil can be any. It is desirable to have a large number of shelters and good filtration and aeration. Average life expectancy is 2 years.
Mexican dwarf cancer (Cambarellus montezumae). This species lives in the waters of the Mexican Lake Patzcuaro. Optimum conditions of maintenance: Aquarium from 70 liters Water temperature 15-30 ° C, dGH 8, pH 6.4-8.2. Sizes: up to 6 cm. These crayfish do not spoil the plants and love shelter. May interbreed with other species like Cambarellus patzcuarensis. Life expectancy is about 18 months.
Blue Cuban Cancer (Procambarus cubensis). The body length of Cuban cancer reaches 10 centimeters. The males have larger claws, and 2 pairs of swimming legs have transformed into gonopodia, the external genitalia. Females do not have the first swimming legs, or they are much smaller in size than the males. Aquarium from 100 liters. Sand, limestone or marble are used as substrates. Water temperature is 20-26 ° C, pH 7-8 and dH 10-20 °. The life span of Cuban blue crayfish reaches 3 years.
Red Florida swamp cancer (Procambarus clarkii). Inhabits water bodies of the south-eastern part of North America. The body length of a red Florida cancer reaches 10 - 13 cm centimeters. Optimum conditions of maintenance: water temperature is 23-28 ° C, medium hardness 10-15 dGH, pH 7.2-7.5, filtration, aeration and weekly water changes up to 20% of the volume of the aquarium are also necessary. For 6-10 young crayfish, a capacity of 150-200 liters is required. It is desirable to have a large number of shelters of stones, snags, ceramics, etc., with a shortage of shelters become more aggressive and often conflict. Red Florida crayfish are very fond of digging. Average life expectancy of 3 years.
White Florida Cancer (Procambarus Clarkii). Habitat of the USA. Leads daytime life. Peaceful, can live with fish and shrimp. It grows up to 12 cm. Optimal conditions for keeping: water temperature 22-27 ° С, pH 6-7. It is desirable to contain in aquariums with a bottom area of 100 cm x 40 cm. Sand is undesirable as soil. In the aquarium for the maintenance of several individuals should be enough floor area and shelters. Wild colors are mostly red, breeding species, may have white, blue, orange color. Life expectancy is up to 5 years.