Sometimes it happens that a healthy person who has never complained of problems with breathing, suddenly began to overcome shortness of breath, there were unpleasant sensations when inhaling, and the feeling that there was always not enough air. Such problems have recently become the reasons for frequent requests for medical help, and today we will try to figure out what might be behind these symptoms.
Why can not breathe deeply?
Causes of shortness of breath can be both physiological and purely psychological. Also worth taking into account the influence of the environment.
Now about this in order. Why is it difficult to breathe?
- Strengthened physical activity. In the case of the usual things for us - go up to the fifth floor, bring food packages to the house, go to the gym for workouts, the body can react with the appearance of shortness of breath, which does not pose any danger to it. But if the load increases, oxygen starvation occurs, and breathing becomes more difficult. Do not panic if dyspnea quickly disappears and does not cause any pain. You just need to relax a bit and get some fresh air.
- Diseases of the lungs. There are several diseases in which a person will breathe heavily, here are the most common ones.
- Asthma - during the acute period, the airways become inflamed and constricted, which results in shortness of breath, wheezing, and a feeling of tightness in the chest.
- Inflammation of the lungs - an infection that actively develops in the body, causes coughing, painful sensations when inhaling, shortness of breath, as well as an increase in body temperature, excessive sweating and fatigue.
- Pulmonary hypertension. The disease is accompanied by compaction of the walls of the pulmonary arteries against the background of high pressure, which causes wheezing and cough, patients also complain that it is difficult for them to take a deep breath and exhale.
These conditions require immediate medical attention.
- Diseases of the cardiovascular system. If you began to notice that shortness of breath appears more and more often and overpowers you even after your usual physical exertion for more than six months, you should consult a doctor and be examined. This symptom indicates that the heart is trying hard to bring oxygen through the blood to the organs. All this can speak about the development of angina pectoris, which most often affects men over 40, and women who have turned 55 years old.
- Stress and anxiety. It happens that in a situation when a person experiences a strong emotional overstrain, it becomes difficult for him to breathe. Some patients even complain that they can only breathe through their mouths. In fact, such stories are very common.
A feeling of constriction in the chest, frequent breathing, shortness of breath accompany depressive and stressful situations because the nervous system lends itself to excessive exertion, which, in turn, increases the cost of oxygen and can lead to spasm of the respiratory muscles. What to do in such cases? To normalize the condition, just calm down and begin to breathe slowly and deeply.
- Chronic fatigue. If the heart is all right, then it is necessary to pass a blood test to see the level of hemoglobin. If it is significantly reduced, and in addition to “heavy breathing,” such symptoms as general weakness, fatigue, pallor, and frequent dizziness also join, this may indicate the presence of chronic fatigue syndrome.
Physiologically, this process is quite simple to understand: when the hemoglobin level decreases, the organs do not receive much of the oxygen, which affects the external pallor of the skin. For the same reason, a person constantly feels depressed and tired.
To get rid of this condition, the doctor will prescribe you medicines that will help increase hemoglobin.
- Problems with the vessels. Sometimes shortness of breath can also indicate circulatory disorders in the vessels of the brain. In this case, consult a neurologist. As a rule, patients with similar complaints are diagnosed with increased intracranial pressure or spasms of cerebral vessels.
- Hard to breathe through the nose. The cause of problems with nasal breathing may lie in the physiological features of the structure of the nasal passages or curvature of the septum. Help in this case can only be an operation.
The risk of problems with the respiratory system becomes higher in the case of exacerbation of chronic diseases, constant emotional stress, allergies and even obesity. To find the true cause of this condition, you must seek medical help on time. Keep track of your health and regularly undergo examinations.
Causes and types of respiratory failure
When a person breathes heavily and does not have enough air, they talk about shortness of breath. This feature is considered an adaptive act in response to the existing pathology or reflects the natural physiological process of adaptation to changing external conditions. In some cases, it becomes difficult to breathe, but an unpleasant feeling of lack of air does not occur, since hypoxia is eliminated by an increased frequency of respiratory movements - in case of carbon monoxide poisoning, work in breathing apparatus, a sharp rise to height.
Dyspnea is inspiratory and expiratory. In the first case there is not enough air during inhalation, in the second - on the exhale, but a mixed type is possible when it is difficult to inhale and exhale.
Dyspnea does not always accompany the disease, it is physiological, and it is a completely natural state. Causes of physiological dyspnea are:
- Physical exercise,
- Excitement, strong emotional experiences,
- Being in a stuffy, poorly ventilated area, in the highlands.
Physiological increase in respiration occurs reflexively and after a short time passes. People with poor physical condition, who have sedentary “office” work, suffer from shortness of breath in response to physical exertion more often than those who regularly go to the gym, swimming pool or just make daily walks. With the improvement of overall physical development, shortness of breath occurs less frequently.
Pathological dyspnea may develop acutely or be disturbed constantly, even at rest, significantly aggravated by the slightest physical exertion. A person suffocates during the rapid closure of the respiratory tract with a foreign body, edema of laryngeal tissues, lung and other severe conditions. When breathing in this case, the body does not receive the necessary even the minimum amount of oxygen, and other severe disturbances are added to shortness of breath.
The main pathological reasons for which it is difficult to breathe are:
- Respiratory system diseases - pulmonary dyspnea,
- Pathology of the heart and blood vessels - heart shortness of breath,
- Violations of the nervous regulation of the act of breathing - shortness of breath of the central type,
- Violation of the blood gas composition - hematogenous shortness of breath.
Heart disease is one of the most frequent reasons why it becomes difficult to breathe. The patient complains that he does not have enough air and presses in the chest, notes the appearance of edema in the legs, cyanosis of the skin, fatigue, etc. Usually, patients who have breathing problems on the background of changes in the heart have already been examined and even take appropriate medications, but dyspnea can not only persist, but in some cases is aggravated.
When the pathology of the heart is not enough air during inhalation, that is, inspiratory dyspnea. It accompanies heart failure, can be maintained even at rest in its severe stages, aggravated at night when the patient lies.
The most common causes of cardiac dyspnea:
- Coronary heart disease,
- Cardiomyopathy and myocardiodystrophy,
- Defects - congenital lead to shortness of breath in childhood and even the neonatal period,
- Inflammatory processes in the myocardium, pericarditis,
- Heart failure.
The occurrence of breathing difficulties in cardiac pathology is most often associated with the progression of heart failure, in which either there is no adequate cardiac output and tissue suffers from hypoxia, or stagnation occurs in the lungs due to insolvency of the left ventricular myocardium (cardiac asthma).
In addition to shortness of breath, often combined with a dry, painful cough, people with heart disease have other characteristic complaints that make it easier to diagnose - pain in the heart area, "evening" swelling, cyanosis of the skin, and interruptions in the heart. It becomes harder to breathe while lying down, so most patients even sleep half-sitting, thus reducing the flow of venous blood from the legs to the heart and the manifestation of shortness of breath.
heart failure symptoms
With an attack of cardiac asthma, which can quickly turn into alveolar edema of the lungs, the patient literally suffocates - the respiration rate exceeds 20 per minute, the face turns blue, the neck veins swell, the sputum becomes frothy. Pulmonary edema requires emergency care.
Treatment of cardiac dyspnea depends on the underlying cause that caused it. Diuretic drugs (furosemide, veroshpiron, diacarb), ACE inhibitors (lisinopril, enalapril, etc.), beta-blockers and antiarrhythmics, cardiac glycosides, oxygen therapy are prescribed to an adult patient with heart failure.
Children are shown diuretics (diacarb), and drugs of other groups are strictly dosed due to possible side effects and contraindications in childhood. Congenital defects in which the child begins to choke from the very first months of life may require urgent surgical correction and even heart transplantation.
Pathology of the lungs is the second reason leading to difficulty in breathing, which can be either difficulty breathing in or breathe out. Pulmonary pathology with respiratory failure is:
- Chronic obstructive diseases - asthma, bronchitis, pneumosclerosis, pneumoconiosis, pulmonary emphysema,
- Pneumatic and hydrothorax
- Foreign bodies of the respiratory tract,
- Thromboembolism in the branches of the pulmonary arteries.
Chronic inflammatory and sclerotic changes in the pulmonary parenchyma greatly contribute to respiratory failure. They are aggravated by smoking, poor environmental conditions, recurrent infections of the respiratory system. Dyspnea at first worries during physical exertion, gradually acquiring the character of a constant, as the disease passes into a more severe and irreversible stage of the course.
With the pathology of the lungs the gas composition of the blood is disturbed, there is a lack of oxygen, which, first of all, is lacking in the head and brain. Severe hypoxia provokes metabolic disturbances in the nervous tissue and the development of encephalopathy.
Patients with bronchial asthma know well how breathing is disturbed during an attack: it becomes very difficult to exhale, there is discomfort and even chest pain, arrhythmia is possible, sputum when coughing is separated with difficulty and extremely scarce, the neck veins swell. Patients with such shortness of breath are sitting with their hands on their knees - this posture reduces venous return and the load on the heart, relieving the condition. Most often it is difficult to breathe and there is not enough air for such a patient at night or in the early morning hours.
In a severe asthmatic attack, the patient suffocates, the skin becomes bluish, a panic and some disorientation is possible, and the asthmatic status can be accompanied by convulsions and loss of consciousness.
For respiratory disorders due to chronic pulmonary pathology, the patient's appearance changes: the rib cage becomes barrel-shaped, the gaps between the ribs are enlarged, the neck veins are large and dilated, as are the peripheral veins of the limbs. Expansion of the right half of the heart against the background of sclerotic processes in the lungs leads to its insufficiency, and shortness of breath becomes mixed and more severe, that is, not only the lungs do not cope with breathing, but the heart cannot provide adequate blood flow, overflowing with blood the venous part of the greater circulation.
Not enough air is also the case pneumonia, pneumothorax, hemothorax. With inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma, it becomes not only difficult to breathe, the temperature rises, there are obvious signs of intoxication on the face, and cough is accompanied by sputum.
Extremely serious cause of sudden respiratory failure is considered to be in the respiratory tract of a foreign body. It can be a piece of food or a small detail of a toy that a baby will accidentally inhale when playing. The victim with a foreign body begins to choke, turns blue, quickly loses consciousness, and cardiac arrest is possible if help does not come in time.
Pulmonary vascular thromboembolism can also lead to sudden and rapidly increasing shortness of breath, coughing. It occurs more often than a person suffering from pathology of the vessels of the legs, heart, and destructive processes in the pancreas. In thromboembolism, the condition can be extremely severe with an increase in asphyxia, blue skin, rapid apnea and palpitations.
In some cases, the cause of severe shortness of breath is allergy and angioedema, which are also accompanied by laryngeal stenosis. The cause may be a food allergen, wasp sting, inhalation of plant pollen, a drug. In these cases, both the child and the adult need emergency medical care to stop the allergic reaction, and asphyxia may require a tracheostomy and artificial ventilation of the lungs.
Treatment of pulmonary dyspnea should be differentiated. If the cause is a foreign body, then it should be removed as soon as possible, in case of allergic edema, administration of antihistamines, glucocorticoid hormones, adrenaline is indicated to a child and an adult. In case of asphyxia, tracheo-or conicotomy is performed.
In bronchial asthma, multistep treatment, including beta adrenomimetics (salbutamol) in sprays, anticholinergics (ipratropium bromide), methylxanthines (aminophylline), glucocorticosteroids (triamcinolone, prednisolone).
Acute and chronic inflammatory processes require antibacterial and detoxification therapy, and compression of the lungs during pneumo-or hydrothorax, impaired obstruction of the respiratory tract by the tumor indicates the indication for surgery (puncture of the pleural cavity, thoracotomy, removal of part of the lung, etc.).
In some cases, breathing difficulties are associated with brain damage, because there are located the most important nerve centers that regulate the activity of the lungs, blood vessels, and heart. Dyspnea of this type is characteristic of structural damage to brain tissue - trauma, neoplasm, stroke, edema, encephalitis, etc.
Disorders of the respiratory function in brain pathology are very diverse: it is possible both to slow the breathing and to increase it, the appearance of different types of pathological breathing. Many patients with severe cerebral pathology are on artificial ventilation of the lungs, as they simply cannot breathe.
The toxic effect of the waste products of microbes, fever leads to an increase in hypoxia and acidification of the internal environment of the body, because of which shortness of breath appears - the patient breathes often and noisily. Thus, the body seeks to quickly get rid of excess carbon dioxide and provide tissues with oxygen.
The relatively harmless cause of cerebral dyspnea can be considered functional impairment in the activity of the brain and peripheral nervous system - autonomic dysfunction, neurosis, hysteria. In these cases, shortness of breath is “nervous” in nature and in some cases it is noticeable to the naked eye even to a specialist.
With vegetative dystonia, neurotic disorders and banal hysteria, the patient seems to lack air, he makes frequent breathing movements, and at the same time he can scream, cry and behave extremely defiantly. A person may even complain during a crisis that he suffocates, but there is no physical signs of asphyxiation - he does not turn blue, and the internal organs continue to work properly.
Respiratory disorders during neurosis and other disorders of the psyche and the emotional sphere are relieved by sedatives, but often doctors encounter patients in whom such nervous dyspnea becomes permanent, the patient concentrates on this symptom, often sighs and quickens breathing under stress or an emotional outburst.
The treatment of cerebral dyspnea is engaged in resuscitation, therapists, psychiatrists. In severe brain lesions with the inability of self-breathing, the patient is undergoing artificial lung ventilation. In the case of a tumor, it should be removed, and neuroses and hysterical forms of breathing difficulties should be stopped by sedatives, tranquilizers and neuroleptics in severe cases.
Гематогенная одышка возникает при нарушении химического состава крови, когда в ней возрастает концентрация углекислоты и развивается ацидоз вследствие циркуляции кислых продуктов обмена. This respiratory disorder is manifested in anemias of very different origins, malignant tumors, severe renal failure, diabetic coma, severe intoxication.
When hematogenous shortness of breath, the patient complains that he often does not have enough air, but the process of inhalation and exhalation itself is not disturbed, the lungs and heart do not have obvious organic changes. A detailed examination shows that the reason for frequent breathing, which preserves the feeling that there is not enough air, are shifts in the electrolyte and gas composition of the blood.
Treatment of anemia involves the appointment of iron supplements, vitamins, nutrition, blood transfusion, depending on the cause. In renal and hepatic failure, detoxification therapy, hemodialysis, and infusion therapy are performed.
Other causes of difficulty breathing
Many people know the feeling when for no apparent reason not to sigh without a sharp pain in the chest or back. Most immediately get scared, thinking about a heart attack and clutching at validol, but the reason may be different - osteochondrosis, herniated intervertebral disk, intercostal neuralgia.
In intercostal neuralgia, the patient feels severe pain in the half of the chest, aggravated by movements and inhalation, aboutSensitive patients can panic, breathe often and superficially. In osteochondrosis it is difficult to inhale, and persistent pain in the spine can provoke chronic dyspnea, which can be difficult to distinguish from difficult breathing in pulmonary or cardiac pathology.
Treatment of breathing difficulties in diseases of the musculoskeletal system includes physical therapy, physiotherapy, massage, medication support in the form of anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics.
Many expectant mothers complain that with an increase in the duration of pregnancy it becomes harder for them to breathe. This symptom may well fit into the norm, because the growing uterus and fetus raise the diaphragm and reduce the pulmonary expansion, hormonal changes and the formation of the placenta increase the number of respiratory movements to provide the tissues of both organisms with oxygen.
However, during pregnancy, breathing should be carefully evaluated in order not to miss the serious pathology, which would seem to be his natural increase, which can be anemia, thromboembolic syndrome, progression of heart failure in case of a woman’s defect, etc.
Thromboembolism of the pulmonary arteries is considered to be one of the most dangerous reasons for which a woman can start choking during pregnancy. This condition represents a threat to life, accompanied by a sharp increase in respiration, which becomes noisy and ineffective. Asphyxia and death are possible without first aid.
Thus, having considered only the most frequent causes of difficulty breathing, it becomes clear that this symptom may indicate dysfunction of almost all organs or body systems, and in some cases it is difficult to isolate the main pathogenic factor. Patients who have difficulty breathing need careful examination, and if the patient suffocates, they need urgent, qualified help.
Any case of shortness of breath requires a trip to the doctor to find out its cause, self-treatment in this case is unacceptable and can lead to very serious consequences. This is especially true of respiratory disorders in children, pregnant women and sudden attacks of breathlessness in people of any age.
Recognizing the symptoms of heavy breathing is not that difficult. A person begins inhibited communication, it is difficult for him to concentrate on the conversation. The lack of air is also manifested in the following indicators:
- lowering the head
- brain work worsens,
- deep breathing
- darkening of the eyes
- blurred items.
Coughing and shortness of breath can manifest itself in several forms - permanent, infrequent, debilitating.
An urgent appeal to the doctor is possible if the patient feels additional manifestations, and the lack of air is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- burning sensation in the sternum and painful attacks,
- heavy breathing at rest,
- inconvenience in lying position
- during sleep you can hear wheezing and whistling
- unpleasant feeling when swallowing,
- foreign body sensation in the throat,
- high body temperature,
- sharp bouts of heavy breathing
When detecting shortness of breath, the patient under no circumstances can not engage in self-treatment. It is enough to identify such a symptom and seek the help of a doctor.
To diagnose a prolonged breathing difficulty in a person, one needs to know the rate of breath frequency per minute. In a healthy adult, there are normally about 17–20 respiratory movements, and children breathe much more often. In a minute they can take up to 35 breaths and breaths. Breathing rhythm should be counted by the amount of one movement - raising and lowering the chest.
If the patient has asthma or any of the aforementioned illnesses, then his breathing may be significantly more frequent. Altered respiratory rate can lead to a significant deterioration in the patient’s general condition.
Obstructed nasal breathing can manifest itself in a person of any age and gender, therefore, with frequent relapses, it is important to immediately inform the doctor. The causes of the symptom can be very diverse, so you need to quickly establish the provoking factor. Depending on the alleged disease, the patient is assigned to conduct laboratory and instrumental diagnostics:
- blood test,
- chest X-ray,
Therapy of a sign is appointed after carrying out diagnostics.
If the patient has nasal breathing is difficult, then he can be given first aid before the arrival of the doctor. In order to provide emergency support, the patient must stick to a sitting position, but so that the spine and shoulders are laid back. You can put pillows under your back, but your shoulders should always be opened so that your lungs can take as much air as possible.
Symptom treatment can also be carried out exercises. The patient can restore breathing with a light action:
- you need to lie down or sit down, with your shoulders back,
- put your palms on the chest,
- breathe nose and mouth in turn.
Repeating this exercise several times, the lack of air is reduced and the patient will feel much better. However, it is worth remembering that too deep breaths can cause dizziness. After exercise you can relax a bit.
For asthma, an asthma attack, allergies or stress, doctors advise you to go outside or to open a window. You can also drink cool water or make a compress to relieve a little heat from a difficult breath and exhalation. In case of allergies, it is important to immediately eliminate the allergen so that there will be no relapse.
In case of detection of cardiovascular ailments, the cardiologist prescribes the patient to be more in the fresh air, not to embarrass himself with clothes, to keep calm and use diuretic drugs.
To normalize breathing in osteochondrosis, stress, allergies and other problems, doctors advise you to adhere to preventive measures:
- eliminate all negative habits
- play sports and lead an active lifestyle,
- control weight
- take medication to improve breathing.
When identifying any of the above signs and difficulty breathing, the person is recommended to consult a doctor to find out the exact causes of the symptom and stop the attack of asphyxiation.
"Difficult breathing" is observed in diseases:
Allergic asthma is the most common form of asthma, which occurs in almost 85% of the child population and in half the adult who currently live in the country. Substances that penetrate into the human body during inhalation, and provoke the progression of allergies, called allergens. In medicine, allergic asthma is also called atopic.
Anaphylactic shock is a severe allergic condition that represents a threat to human life, which develops as a result of exposure to the body of different antigens. The pathogenesis of this pathology is due to an instantaneous type of body reaction, in which there is a sharp influx of such substances as histamine and others into the bloodstream, which causes an increase in the permeability of blood vessels, muscle spasms of internal organs and other multiple disorders. As a result of these disorders, blood pressure drops, which leads to the lack of adequate amount of oxygen by the brain and other organs. All this leads to loss of consciousness and the development of a variety of internal disorders.
Arterial hypotension is a fairly common pathology, which is characterized by persistent or regular presence in a person of tonometer readings below 100 to 60 millimeters of mercury. The disease can occur at any age, which is why it is also diagnosed in babies and women during pregnancy.
Ascarids are helminthic parasites of the nematode family (roundworms), which parasitize in the human gastrointestinal tract. Every year, many children and adults become infected with ascaris, which causes them to develop severe symptoms and complications. In advanced cases, roundworms can cause the patient to die, causing comorbid diseases of the internal organs.
Asthmatic bronchitis is a disease that has an allergic etiology and affects mainly large and medium bronchi. Asthmatic bronchitis is not bronchial asthma, as many believe. However, clinicians note that this disease may be one of the etiological factors for the development of asthma. The disease has no restrictions regarding age and sex, but in the main risk group children of pre-school and primary school age, especially if a history of allergic illnesses.
Asthmatic cough is an accelerated exhalation through the mouth, which occurs as a result of inflammation or narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi due to muscle spasms, edema of the submucosal layer and abundant discharge of viscous sputum. Quite often, this type of cough is called allergic, since the pathological process can occur against the background of external stimuli. In some cases, the manifestation of this type of cough may be due to the presence of asthma or obstructive bronchitis.
Abdominal ascites (known as dropsy of the abdomen) is a pathology that is a complication of other diseases. Abdominal ascites is characterized by the formation and subsequent accumulation of fluid inside the abdomen, which impairs the functioning of the organs in the peritoneal cavity. The code for the international classification of diseases ICD-10: R18. Such a disease requires the immediate intervention of specialists who perform paracentesis at a high level and prescribe a special diet. Often, laparocentesis is used to treat the disease.
Aerophagia (syn. Pneumatosis of the stomach) is a functional upset stomach, which is characterized by the ingestion of a large amount of air, which after a while causes it to regurgitate. This can occur both during and outside the use of food. A similar condition can occur in both an adult and a child.
Broncho-obstructive syndrome is a complex of symptoms associated with impaired patency of air masses in the bronchi. The consequence of the pathological process is the narrowing of the airways with increasing resistance to air flow during ventilation.
Maxillary sinusitis is an inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinuses called maxillary sinuses. It is for this reason that the disease is the second name - sinusitis. Inflammation extends not only to the mucous membrane, but also to the submucosal layer, the bone and bone tissue of the upper dentition. According to medical statistics, this disease is the most common among all pathologies of the nasal sinuses. May occur in acute and chronic form. It occurs in both adults and children.
Intrauterine pneumonia in newborns is an inflammatory process in the lung tissue caused by exposure to pathogenic organisms. In most cases, intrauterine pneumonia in newborns is localized, but the generalized form is not excluded.
Dislocation of the lower jaw is a pathological condition, the essence of which lies in the displacement of the articular head from its anatomical position, i.e. it slides to the anterior slope of the articular tubercle of the temporal bone. Such changes lead to a persistent disruption of the functioning of the TMJ. The prevalence rate varies from 1.5 to 5.5% among all dislocations.
Ganglioneuritis is an inflammation of the nervous node of the sympathetic nervous system, accompanied by damage to the nerve processes. The underlying cause of this disease is the occurrence in the body of the infectious process in both acute and chronic form. In addition, there are several predisposing factors.
Adenoid hypertrophy is a condition in which the nasopharyngeal tonsil becomes large due to hyperplasia of the lymphoid tissue. It should be noted that the hypertrophy of the tonsils is combined with hypertrophy of the adenoids, in fact, they are one and the same. The main visual symptoms are: open mouth, stuffy nose, nasal voice, frequent viral diseases, otitis regular. Tonsillitis or another disease may also occur.
Tonsil hypertrophy is a pathological process in which there is an increase in lymphoid nodes that are located between the anterior and posterior palatine arches. The clinical picture at an early stage of development is absent, and in general, the symptoms are non-specific.
Glycogenosis (Girke's disease) is a group of rare genetic diseases associated with a lack of certain enzymes for the combination and breakdown of glycogen. As a result, the enzyme accumulates in the body, causing illness. The treatment will be in a diet high in carbohydrates.
Purulent bronchitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the bronchial tree. This pathological process, most often, is the result of acute or chronic forms of bronchitis. However, it is not excluded that such a pathological process can act as an independent disease.
Purulent rhinitis is a fairly common and at the same time severe pathology, occurring in both children and adults. A feature of this disease is that, in addition to inflammation, a purulent process is formed in the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity.
Dextrocardia is a congenital pathology when the natural location of the heart and its associated vessels is disturbed (the organ is located not on the left side of the chest, but on the right). The simple form of such an anomaly does not require specific treatment and does not affect the quality of a person’s life.
Zagulum abscess - purulent inflammation of loose tissue and lymph nodes in the pharyngeal space. The occipital space is the area anatomically localized behind the pharynx. It is worth noting that a pharyngeal abscess is more often diagnosed in children than in adults. This is due to the peculiarities of the structure of their pharynx and pharyngeal area. In the medical literature, this pathological condition is also called the posterior-pharyngeal abscess or retropharyngeal abscess.
Rear rhinitis is also called rhinopharyngitis and is an inflammatory disease that can be easily confused with the common cold. The disease occurs in the upper respiratory tract, namely in the nasopharynx, tonsils or lymphatic ring. As a rule, it is often possible to meet posterior rhinitis in a child, however, in adults it is often observed.
Spleen cyst is a benign mass in the cavity of an organ that has a capsule, usually filled with fluid. The initial course of the pathological process is asymptomatic, but as the cyst grows, the clinical picture will also become more pronounced.
Contact dermatitis is a dermatological disease of an inflammatory nature, in some cases it has an allergic nature. Such eruptions have a clear localization, but not randomly, but only in the places of contact of the skin with an irritant.
Coronavirus in humans contributes to the development of acute respiratory disease (from two to five days), after which comes recovery. With the confluence of unfavorable factors, the infection may provoke the occurrence of atypical pneumonia.
Cryptosporidiosis - a protozoal infectious disease that causes cryptosporidia, affects mainly the digestive tract. It manifests itself as an acute fleeting infection. Infection occurs through the fecal-oral route through contaminated water, food, dirty hands.
Brain haemorrhage is one of the most common types of abnormal blood circulation in the cranial cavity. Такой процесс происходит из-за того, что становятся тонкими и хрупкими сосуды головного мозга, от чего повышается риск их разрыва в любой момент, что собственно и провоцирует кровотечение.
Pulmonary insufficiency is a condition characterized by the inability of the pulmonary system to maintain the normal gas composition of the blood, or it is stabilized due to the strong overvoltage of the compensatory mechanisms of the respiratory apparatus. The basis of this pathological process is a violation of gas exchange in the pulmonary system. Because of this, the required amount of oxygen does not enter the human body, and the level of carbon dioxide is constantly increasing. All this becomes the cause of the oxygen starvation of organs.
Medical rhinitis is a disease that occurs as a result of prolonged use of vasodilator nasal drops. With colds, people often resort to self-treatment, abusing drugs. If uncontrolled use of vasoconstrictor drops, then there is a high likelihood of developing medical rhinitis. Unfortunately, not every person thinks about it, and as a result they acquire this ailment, which is sometimes very difficult to cure.
Micrognathia is an anomaly, which is characterized by the fact that a person has an underdeveloped lower jaw. In rare cases, the pathological process extends to the lower jaw or both halves of the dentition.
Microinfarction (a type of coronary heart disease) is a small focal myocardial lesion that develops on the background of insufficient blood circulation and is characterized by the necrosis of small areas of the heart muscle. This is one of the most common diseases of the cardiovascular system, which serves as a harbinger of the development of a more serious heart disease - heart attack.
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With exercise and temperance, most people can do without medicine.
Causes of Breathing Problems
If there is a problem with breathing and it seems that there is not enough air, doctors can witness the patient shortness of breath. It is also worth knowing what to do if it is difficult to breathe. This symptom is considered to be the answer to the existing pathology, it occurs when the body begins to adapt to it. This feature can also be a confirmation of the natural physiological process of adaptation to the changed external conditions.
There are cases when it is difficult to breathe, but there is no unpleasant feeling of lack of air. This is due to the fact that the frequency of respiratory movements increases, due to which hypoxia is eliminated. This happens during a sharp rise in height, working in various breathing apparatus or carbon monoxide poisoning.
There are two types of shortness of breath: inspiratory and expiratory. In the first case, there will not be enough air when you inhale, in the second - when you exhale. Sometimes a patient has dyspnea of a mixed type: he cannot normally take a full and deep breath and fully exhale.
There is also physiological dyspnea, which is considered to be a completely natural state. The appearance of physiological dyspnea can lead to:
- excitement or intense emotional distress
- physical exercise,
- stay in the highlands
- bad indoor climate and insufficient airing.
Usually such a symptom as increased respiration is associated with physiological causes and after some time passes. Dyspnea at the same time appears reflex. If a person is in poor physical shape and leads a sedentary lifestyle, then during physical exertion he may often experience shortness of breath. For those who regularly train or even just walk, this problem does not arise. The feeling of shortness of breath will occur much less frequently with an improvement in overall physical condition.
Dyspnea of the pathological type often has an acute developmental nature. She torments the patient all the time, sometimes even at rest. In addition, with the slightest physical effort, the problem is only exacerbated.
If the airways are sharply blocked by a foreign body, swelling of the tissues of the larynx, lungs, and other serious conditions occurs. The man immediately begins to choke. In this case, the body during respiration does not receive even the necessary minimum of oxygen. At the same time, in addition to shortness of breath, there are serious violations in other organs and systems.
Pathological causes of difficulty in breathing include:
- pathology of the heart and blood vessels (such shortness of breath is called heart),
- with respiratory system diseases, pulmonary dyspnea occurs,
- hematogenous shortness of breath is the result of impaired blood gas composition,
- dyspnea of the central type develops with disturbances in the nervous regulation of the act of respiration,
Difficulty breathing in osteochondrosis
The most common symptom in osteochondrosis is dyspnea. It requires special attention. Dyspnea in this case acts as a consequence of the disease, and there is no point in treating it. The disease carries a much greater danger than all its manifestations. A visit to the doctor is absolutely necessary for osteochondrosis.
Main symptoms of dyspnea in osteochondrosis or how to identify it
If cervical osteochondrosis is diagnosed, then shortness of breath looks like an inability to breathe deeply. Also, the patient complains of muscle spasms and body aches.
At the same time shortness of breath is expressed in violation of the respiratory rhythm. In this case, an acute or slight lack of oxygen can lead to discomfort.
In osteochondrosis, the symptoms of dyspnea are complemented by the following phenomena:
- the appearance of constant drowsiness,
- it's impossible to breathe normally
- hard breath,
- constant feeling of tiredness
- appearance of turbidity in the head,
- chest or neck pain with a deep breath
- inability to fully yawn.
Also, if a person has a diseased spine, memory or mental impairment can sometimes be observed. This is due to the lack of the necessary amount of oxygen in certain parts of the brain.
What is the danger of shortness of breath
Holders of this disease may suspect the presence of various heart diseases, especially angina pectoris or heart attack. In most cases, the occurrence of shortness of breath is associated with obesity, a sedentary lifestyle or smoking. Self-diagnosis prevents time to undergo the procedure of diagnosis, which can bring the patient to a deplorable or critical state.
Any shortness of breath can lead to suffocation, which causes irreversible damage to brain cells. Treat these symptoms is necessary to the neurologist. He will conduct a visual diagnosis based on the analysis of all patient complaints.
With the help of pressure in the chest, a specialist can determine the causes of this condition and all possible pathologies. Tomography can also be prescribed.
Why does dyspnea appear
When it is difficult to breathe with osteochondrosis, as well as with shallow and incomplete breathing, it is possible to diagnose the displacement of the polypous core. Symptoms of this condition are incomplete, difficulty in breathing or breathing out and the inability to breathe. As a result of the displacement of the nucleus, the nerve endings are irritated and the blocking of the vessels through which oxygen enters the tissues and organs occurs. To restore the oxygen balance, a person has to take frequent breaths. This is what is perceived by the patient as shortness of breath.
The main cause of shortness of breath is the lack of physical activity. It can also be caused by other reasons:
- improper diet, which leads to metabolic disorders,
- uncomfortable posture during long sitting
- various back injuries (falls, blows, sprains),
- genetic heredity,
- poorly equipped tables, beds, desks.
What to do to treat shortness of breath with osteochondrosis
In case of wandering osteochondrosis, it is often difficult for the patient to breathe. In this case, this symptom should not be fought with the help of various medications recommended by the doctor. After curing the disease, the problem with dyspnea will completely disappear.
Treatment may take 1 - 3 months. In advanced cases, an operation is prescribed for cervical, thoracic or lumbar osteochondrosis. It will take about one year to restore the patient’s health.
Ways to combat dyspnea without surgery:
- physiotherapy helps to remove pain and quickly restore the body after surgery,
- massage with osteochondrosis can improve blood circulation and saturate tissues with oxygen. The result is a symptom of heavy breathing,
- physiotherapy helps to create the necessary load on certain areas of the body. With the help of such exercises, the muscles are strengthened and the blocks are aligned. Thus, a person can breathe out and breathe deeply.
In order to eliminate dissatisfaction with breathing, the doctor may prescribe medication, manual, reflex therapy and traction, that is, spinal traction. The measures taken lead to relief, shortness of breath is removed and the general condition of the body is greatly improved.
How to eliminate shortness of breath at home
To get rid of the severity and shortness of breath and to alleviate the patient's condition in various ways.
Additional home treatment can be used only in consultation with your doctor!
These treatments include the following:
- foot baths
- Exercises that help normalize respiratory function.
The easiest way to eliminate shortness of breath is running and warm-up. After consulting with doctors, you can perform exercises with weight lifting.
Dyspnea as such is not a disease. It is always the result of another pathology, including osteochondrosis. But if you experience unpleasant symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor - this will avoid serious surgical intervention. The main cause of shortness of breath - sedentary lifestyle. Pay more attention to the sport and be healthy!
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Unfortunately, in my life I had to get acquainted with shortness of breath, and my two-year-old son became the victim of her cunning. The doctor diagnosed obstructive bronchitis, and our bronchial asthma began with this. It’s very scary to watch your child breathe loudly and hard, his face turns pale, his lips turn blue. It is good that I found a good doctor who taught us to cure this disease competently and without consequences. After a course of nebulizer therapy, we are ill with acute respiratory viral infections but without attacks of shortness of breath and wheezing. Now my son is 7 years old, and he slowly outgrows this ailment, which I waited with great anticipation. we are talking about the children's body, the reasons may be mass.
The article is very useful, for example, I did not think that shortness of breath can be osteochondrosis, and this is a very common disease.
I have no problems with dyspnea. I regularly go to the gym, do power sports, I walk a lot. Of course, cardiovascular activity, such as running or cycling to increase stamina, would not hurt. There is sometimes shortness of breath when work is associated with physical endurance, but in general I am engaged in prevention.
Types of respiratory failure
When the disorder of normal breathing is accompanied by a lack of oxygen, we are talking about dyspnea. Dyspnea can be inspiratory, in which breathing is difficult, and expiratory: with the lack of air accompanied by exhalation. There is also a mixed variety of dyspnea, in which the difficulty is observed both by inhalation and by exhalation of air.
Increased respiratory function is most often formed by reflex, and passes after some time. Typically, this problem occurs in people with poor physical fitness, suffering from physical inactivity.
An unpleasant symptom may disappear without a trace when systematically playing sports.
In addition, shortness of breath and violation of inhalation and exhalation can occur when a foreign body penetrates the larynx, as well as when the larynx or lungs are swollen. In this case, other unpleasant symptoms join dyspnea.
If dyspnea becomes chronic and worries on an ongoing basis, even at rest, you can be suspicious of a serious pathology.
Causes of Bad Breathing
Impaired normal respiratory capacity is formed due to insufficient oxygen supply to the lungs. Most often this is due to the following factors:
- excessive physical activity
- stressful situations, great excitement,
- third trimester of pregnancy
- penetration of a foreign object in the ENT path,
- low atmospheric pressure
- poor movement,
Bad and heavy breathing, which has become chronic, often worries people suffering from osteochondrosis, neurological diseases, intervertebral hernia. The reasons are also the following diseases:
- pathologies of the upper and lower ENT pathways, including bronchial asthma, inflammation of the bronchi and lungs, cancer tumors in the lungs, pneumosclerosis,
- chronic diseases of the heart and blood vessels (ischemia, tachycardia, heart attack),
- failure of the central nervous system, stroke, brain damage, cancer,
- decrease in hemoglobin in the blood (anemia).
Difficulty in breathing in children can be caused by the following factors:
- overheating of the body, high fever,
- stresses, conflicts,
- intense sports
- penetration of a foreign object into the throat,
- allergic reactions
- runny nose
- inflammation and swelling of the larynx,
- infectious diseases (such as diphtheria),
- pulmonary emphysema
- heart disease,
- failure of immunity,
- viral diseases
- hormonal disorders,
- cystic fibrosis.
Frequent heart rhythm, as well as increased respiratory function, are not always alarming signs in children. This is due to the peculiarities of their physiology: children perform more respiratory movements than adults.
However, if the child’s breathing is bad and difficult, it causes anxiety, you should consult a doctor.
Difficulty in respiratory function may be accompanied by accompanying symptoms that depend on the pathology that caused them.
If heavy breathing in an adult and a child accompanies pulmonary pathologies, a lack of oxygen is observed both during inhalation and during exhalation of oxygen.
To aggravate the condition can:
- bad habits,
- polluted environment
- relapse of ENT diseases.
Initially, dyspnea worries only with little physical activity, after which it becomes chronic, and it occurs constantly.
With pulmonary pathologies, as a rule, the gas composition of the blood is disturbed. First of all, the brain suffers from this: chronic hypoxia can trigger the development of encephalopathy.
A rather serious pathology is bronchial asthma: in addition to poor and inadequate breathing, an asthma patient may feel:
- chest pain,
- heart rhythm disorder
- vein swelling,
- cough with hard to remove mucus.
Most often, these symptoms bother in the morning and evening. A severe asthma attack can cause a person to panic, disoriented in space and begins to suffocate. The condition may be aggravated by convulsive syndromes and loss of consciousness.
With pneumonia, pneumothorax and hemothorax, there is a feeling that the respiration is spinning. In addition to this patient bother:
- intoxication syndrome,
- moist cough.
With the penetration of a foreign object in the ENT pathway, the patient, as a rule, suffocates and becomes blue, loss of consciousness and cardiac activity can occur.
Sometimes shortness of breath accompanies angioedema, which can provoke a narrowing of the larynx. This condition is the result of ingestion of an allergen or a reaction to any medication. In this case, the patient requires emergency medical care..
If the breath is caught in the chest, it can be a consequence of structural disorders in the brain. In such situations, bad breath is accompanied by a rare or rapid heart rate, noisy breaths.
The most common impairment of respiratory function is found in persons suffering from IRD. Vegetative dystonia is characterized by poor blood supply to the internal organs, which leads to:
- ringing in your ears,
- numbness of limbs
- dyspnea while climbing stairs, walking.
Sometimes dyspnea worries people with neurotic disorders, such as hysteria. In this case, the respiratory function depends on their emotional background. In persons prone to hysteria, nervous dyspnea may become chronic.
The main causes of shortness of breath or regular lack of air
Primarily suggest lung disease. For example, this can occur with a viral infection and after that, with a cold, from heat and cough. In this case, the lungs can not provide gas exchange in full. Данное состояние, если оно сопровождается кашлем, может привести к переходу заболевания в хроническую форму, которая характеризуется снижением функции легких.In such a situation, a full-fledged pulmonary examination and the appointment of appropriate therapeutic measures are necessary.
Potential danger is present when there is a high probability of developing chronic obstructive pathology. This lung disease is accompanied by lethargy of the body and the progression of adhesions.
Often, difficulties are experienced by people who quit smoking.
Cardiac abnormalities cannot be ruled out. Difficult breathing, a sense of lack of air, difficulties in performing physical work (carrying weights, climbing stairs, even walking) can occur with the defeat of the arterial blood vessels of the heart that feed the myocardium. It is worth noting that shortness of breath - a violation of the rhythm and depth of breathing - is the first symptom of angina. If there are other unpleasant symptoms, such as pain in the chest, you should urgently consult a cardiologist.
Vascular problems are one of the main causes of shortness of breath. Difficult breathing often occurs after a stroke, a flu with a protracted course, and also as a result of injury. At the same time working capacity decreases, drowsiness is observed, attention is disturbed.
Such disorders are due to increased intracranial pressure.
In such a situation, it is necessary to consult a neurologist. Disruption of cerebral circulation, accompanied by spasm of blood vessels, can also lead to difficulty breathing.
Bronchial asthma is another common cause. As a rule, the attacks are accompanied by suffocation and are rather difficult to carry. This pathology is often the result of chronic bronchitis. With dyspnea of the heart, it is hard to inhale, and in an attack of asthma, to exhale.
Difficult breathing often occurs with osteochondrosis. When the pathology is localized in the thoracic spine, it is difficult to inhale, breathing becomes shallow and rapid. When cervical osteochondrosis appears slight signs of oxygen starvation, then yawns appear, breathing becomes shallow, dizziness, weakness, drowsiness, cyanosis, blurred vision is observed.
Nervous system disorders affect the entire body, including respiratory function. In particular, regular stresses, accompanied by a pressure disorder, have a pathological effect. With strong waves, the brain requires oxygen saturation, but the body is not able to provide this process, resulting in respiratory spasm, rapid heartbeat. Usually, to resolve the problem, just calm down and rest. In order to quickly normalize your condition, you need to breathe evenly and deeply.
Progressive anemia can trigger the problem. In this case, when examining for the presence of pathologies of the heart and lungs, they will not be identified.
Detection of the disease is possible only through a blood test, as well as based on the patient's complaints. As a rule, people suffering from anemia constantly feel tired (even after a long rest), weakness, weakness, they have low stamina.
Another reason is allergies. Difficult breathing occurs with allergies after contact with an irritant.
Unfortunately, this phenomenon very often accompanies such a pathology.
Severe allergies, for example, the introduction of drugs, can provoke angioedema - a pathology requiring immediate medical intervention.
What to do in case of lack of air?
The problem often occurs during the execution of unusual high-intensity physical work. Tissues and organs produce energy and carbon dioxide, respectively, they require oxygen supply. But if the respiratory system is untrained, then it is not able to provide the body.
Difficulties arise in conditions where the air is depleted of oxygen, for example, in high-altitude areas, in unventilated rooms, in rooms with an abundance of allergens (animal hair, plant pollen, household dust).
If the problem is not related to the conditions of stay and physical labor, you must go through a number of diagnostic procedures, which include:
- Cardiogram of the heart at rest and after exercise,
- Determination of the total volume and health of the lung,
- General blood analysis. It is very important to investigate the number of formed elements responsible for the transport of oxygen molecules, hemoglobin and red blood cells.
In some cases, it is necessary to purchase a tonometer and conduct regular measurements, since the problem may be associated with changes in blood pressure.
How to eliminate the lack of air
Even in well ventilated buildings, the air is worse than outside. Home appliances, synthetic coatings, small areas, dust cause air to become polluted. Saturated with carbon dioxide, it cannot fully provide nutrition for tissues and organs. As a result, performance decreases, there are attacks and suffocation. Such conditions are especially dangerous for persons suffering from bronchial asthma.
Causes of difficulty breathing in a child
In normal condition, the baby breathes silently and effortlessly. In case of poor airway, a high sound appears as the air passes with an effort. Rattles are sounds that are observed when inhaling / exhaling. Violation of the patency of the latter can edema, triggered by infection, a foreign body, inflammation, muscle spasm of the bronchi in asthma. Especially dangerous shortness of breath, observed only during inhalation, as it may be a symptom of croup.
If the problem is accompanied by blue skin of the nasolabial triangle, lethargy, drowsiness, inability to speak or make familiar sounds, urgent hospitalization and diagnosis are necessary.
A sudden problem is usually caused by the ingress of a foreign body. Minor difficulties accompany SARS.
Difficult breathing often occurs in a child with acute respiratory viral infections, when there is a runny nose and cough.
In this case, you need to contact a pediatrician, give plenty of warm drinks to the patient.
Children up to one year often develop bronchiolitis, a disease affecting the small bronchi (usually of viral etiology). In this case, a prolonged cough occurs, which can be observed for more than 2 hours. In addition, all the symptoms of a cold are visible, the baby becomes irritable and his appetite disappears. Parents should call an ambulance when a seizure occurs, since hospitalization is very likely to be required.
One of the most common causes in adults and children is asthma.
It is necessary to pay attention to the child's condition: he often coughs, seizures are observed, particularly during exercise and at night, there are people with asthma in the family.
When a child has an attack, suffocation, a dry cough begins, the voice sets, the temperature rises and the symptoms listed are worse at night, you need to urgently call the doctors, as there is croup.
Periodic repetition of this phenomenon requires an appeal to a specialist and conduct diagnostic procedures. Violation can act as a symptom of a number of serious diseases that require urgent action.
Physiological chain links
Regulation of maintaining a constant level of oxygen in the blood stream, and its stable content with an increase in the load on the body, is carried out by the following functional parameters:
- The work of the respiratory muscles and brain center control the frequency and depth of breath,
- Ensuring airflow, humidification and heating,
- Alveolar ability to absorb oxygen molecules and its diffusion into the blood stream,
- The muscular readiness of the heart to pump blood, transporting it to all the internal structures of the body,
- Maintaining an adequate balance of red blood cells, which are agents for the transfer of molecules to the tissues,
- Blood flow fluidity,
- The susceptibility of cell-level membranes to absorb oxygen,
The occurrence of constant yawning and lack of air indicates a current internal violation of any of the listed links in the reaction chain, requiring the timely execution of therapeutic actions. At the heart of the development of the trait may be the presence of the following diseases.
Pathology of the heart and vascular network
A feeling of air failure with the development of yawning can occur with any damage to the heart, especially affecting its pumping function. The emergence of a fleeting and rapidly disappearing shortage may occur when a crisis condition develops on the background of hypertension, an attack of arrhythmia, or neurocirculatory dystonia. In the most frequent cases, it is not accompanied by cough syndrome.
With regular violations of cardiac functionality, which forms the development of insufficient activity of the heart, a feeling of lack of air begins to occur regularly, and intensify with increasing physical exertion and manifest itself in the night sleep interval in the form of cardiac asthma.
The lack of air is felt on the breath, forming wheezing in the lungs with the release of foamy sputum. To alleviate the condition, the forced position of the body is accepted. After taking nitroglycerin, all the warning signs disappear.
The formation of blood clots in the lumen of the pulmonary arterial trunk leads to constant yawning and lack of air, being the initial sign of a pathological disorder. The mechanism of the development of the disease involves the formation of blood clots in the venous network of the vessels of the extremities, which come off, moving with the blood flow to the pulmonary trunk, causing the arterial lumen to overlap. This leads to the formation of pulmonary infarction.
The condition is life threatening, accompanied by an intense shortage of air, almost resembling asphyxiation with the appearance of cough and sputum containing impurities of blood structures. The covers of the upper half of the torso in this state acquire a shade of blue.
Pathology forms a decrease in the tone of the vascular network of the whole organism, including the tissues of the lungs, brain, and heart. Against the background of this process, the functionality of the heart activity is violated, which does not provide the lungs with enough blood. The flow, in turn, with low oxygen saturation enters the heart tissues without providing it with the necessary volume of nutrients.
The body's reaction is an arbitrary attempt to increase the pressure of the blood flow by increasing the frequency of the heartbeat. As a result of the closed pathological circulation, constant yawning appears with the IRR. In this way, the vegetative sphere of the neural network regulates the intensity of the respiratory function, ensuring the replacement of oxygen and the neutralization of hunger. This protection reaction avoids the development of ischemic damage in the tissues.
The appearance of a yawn with a lack of inhaled air can be provoked by severe disturbances in the functionality of breathing patterns. These include the following diseases:
- Asthma bronchial type.
- Tumor process in the lungs.
- Infectious lesion of the bronchi.
- Pulmonary edema.
In addition, the formation of lack of air and yawning is affected by rheumatism, low mobility and overweight, as well as psychosomatic causes. This spectrum of diseases with the presence of the considered trait includes the most common and frequently detected pathological disorders.
Sometimes it happens that a healthy person who has never complained of problems with breathing, suddenly began to overcome shortness of breath, there were unpleasant sensations when inhaling, and the feeling that there was always not enough air. Such problems have recently become the reasons for frequent requests for medical help, and today we will try to figure out what might be behind these symptoms.