Today, allergies are considered one of the most common pathologies. Moreover, the causes and forms of manifestation of the response of the organism to a stimulus can be completely different. Therefore, each case must be considered separately. Allergic reactions can occur at any time and in any person. However, the disease can not be considered. What is allergy, how it arises and what to do with it - you will learn in this article. And you will have a concept of how to cope with this condition in adults and children.
What is an allergy?
Current doctors are not inclined to consider such a condition a disease. However, it can be not only unpleasant, but also life-threatening. Allergic reactions are the response of the immune system to an irritant. In this case, the sensitivity of the body increases many times.
The reaction may manifest itself in different ways: intensely and not so much, in the form of traces on the skin, breathing problems, runny nose. And allergies can be specific and nonspecific. It should be noted that often a person has an acute reaction to an irritant, which can be very dangerous. In addition, anaphylactic shock and respiratory arrest may occur. Some types of reactions are fatal. Consider what it can be, in more detail.
Types and types of pathology
Allergic reactions do not resemble each other. The mechanism of their occurrence is very close, but they appear quite differently. There are different types of allergic reactions.
1. Specific. In this case, a certain period of time is provided during which the allergen acts on the body. That is, the reaction does not appear immediately, not after the first contact.
2. Nonspecific. In this case, the body reacts instantly.
In addition, allergic reactions can be immediate and slow. The first type includes skin and system pathologies. They occur 25 minutes after the action of the stimulus. They manifest themselves in different ways, sometimes they can be life-threatening (angioedema).
As for delayed reactions, several hours and even days may pass by the period of manifestation. It should be noted that there can be a lot of reasons for the manifestation of pathology, therefore, each specific case should be considered individually. Naturally, there are symptoms that are non-specific.
You can also select different types of allergic reactions.
- Anaphylactic (urticaria, asthma).
- Cytotoxic (allergy to drugs, Rh-conflict in newborns - cell membranes are damaged).
- Immunocomplex (antigens are deposited on the walls of blood vessels: conjunctivitis, dermatitis, serum sickness).
- A condition in which antibodies help stimulate the function of other cells.
This is a rough list that includes the most common types of allergic reactions.
There are many factors that contribute to the emergence of this state. Among them are the following:
- Insect bites or other animals.
- Bed mites.
- Mold spores.
- Wool or saliva of animals.
- Some foods (especially honey).
- The cold and the sun.
- Household cleaning products (chemical).
- Pollen of flowers and other plants.
In principle, possible allergic reactions can have different causes. You may have a completely atypical reaction to any irritant that seems dangerous to your immune system. For example, some people even suffer from water. And an allergic reaction to insect bites can lead to fatal consequences.
The mechanism of development and symptoms of pathology
Now consider how the state appears. Whatever allergic reactions are, they have the same development mechanism.
1. Stage of meeting the body with a stimulus (immunological). At this stage, the production of antibodies begins. Although this is not always the case. Often the body's reaction is already visible after the second or subsequent effects of the antigen.
2. Stage of damage to tissue cells (pathochemical). They contain substances serotonin, histamine and others. Prior to this, mediators are in the inactive phase. It is thanks to them that the body's inflammatory reaction to the invasion of the stimulus occurs.
3. Stage of external manifestations of allergy (pathophysiological). It is at this stage that you can already see the different symptoms of the pathology.
As for the symptoms, it is different.
- Allergic reaction on the skin: red spots, rash, blisters, itching.
- Puffiness of mucous membranes.
- Runny nose
- Red eyes.
- Inflammatory processes.
- Choking (angioedema).
- Anaphylactic shock (drop in blood pressure, loss of consciousness, and even stop breathing).
In any case, an allergic reaction to insect bites or other irritants should be quickly eliminated.
Peculiarities of allergy in children
Today, pediatricians are increasingly encountering such a problem in babies. The reasons for this can be many: hereditary predisposition, polluted air, unhealthy diet, intolerance to breast milk (lactose) and others. Allergic reactions in children can also manifest themselves in different ways: in the form of eczema, diarrhea, urticaria, pain in the abdomen. In addition, there may be other symptoms: swelling of the mucous membranes, asphyxiation, fever, other types of skin rashes. The most terrible condition is anaphylactic shock, as it develops much faster than in adults.
It should be noted that allergic reactions in children appear very quickly - within a few hours. In order to help the child cope with the situation the least painful, it is necessary to immediately eliminate the stimulus. Then you can use only drugs prescribed by the doctor (antihistamines). In addition, medicines should be given to the child only when there is a real threat to life.
And should be carried out to prevent the appearance of allergies. It consists in adhering to a diet, eliminating the source of irritation, and periodic treatment. Naturally, children with such a diagnosis must necessarily be registered with an allergist.
How is allergy determined?
Of course, if there are any symptoms of pathology, it is necessary to consult a specialist. Naturally, an allergic reaction on the skin is visible to the naked eye, but the doctor will tell you how to properly treat it, so that there are no complications.
For diagnostics using different methods.
1. Skin test. It is carried out quickly and very simply, while the study allows you to find out what kind of stimulus acted. To do this, enter into the skin a small amount of different allergens and observe the response of the body. Typically, the procedure takes no more than 20 minutes. You can do such tests at any age and only under the supervision of a specialist. Before the study can not take antihistamines for two days. There are still application tests that give a more accurate result.
2. A thorough blood test for the amount of IgE antibodies in the blood. It should be carried out in the event that the first type of research did not give the necessary picture. The result is usually ready in one to two weeks. The disadvantage of this study is that it is not able to determine how much a strong allergic reaction a patient has.
3. Provocative test. This method allows you to quickly detect the allergen and make an accurate diagnosis. In order to cause a reaction, a certain irritant is used, so a test should be carried out only in a hospital hospital under the supervision of doctors who can quickly help in case of a severe attack.
Naturally, many allergies can be detected with the naked eye. However, you must be absolutely sure of the accuracy of the diagnosis. Therefore, a visit to the doctor is required. Remember that it can save your life and make it more comfortable.
What is acute allergy?
Usually, in this condition, the immunity responds to the stimulus instantly. And the answer can be very strong. In some cases, even have to call an ambulance. This may be an allergic reaction to the bite of a wasp, as well as other insects (or animals), or to some other irritant.
It should be noted that a similar response of the body can be very strong, it can lead to anaphylactic shock. In this case, the person loses consciousness, his pressure drops and often stops breathing. Therefore, you should immediately begin resuscitation. In your first aid kit must be quick-acting drugs that will help to remove the symptoms or wait for the ambulance brigade. In any case, the attending physician should be notified of the incident.
An acute allergic reaction can be very dangerous and even fatal, so you need to deal with pathology responsibly. Do not delay with the elimination of this rather serious condition. However, before the arrival of the doctors, you must perform certain manipulations that prevent the occurrence of the most severe symptoms. Consider the question of what should be first aid for allergies, as well as how it should be treated.
So, if you have an intolerance to certain products, washing the stomach with a special aqueous solution of salt or soda will help get rid of the symptoms. In addition, a cleansing enema can remove the allergic reaction. Water must be warm. In this case, you can add vegetable oil to the liquid. In order to eliminate the effect of produced toxins on the body, you can take these drugs: "Fenistil", "Enterosgel", "Zyrtec". They also help to stop the release of histamine in large quantities, so the acute reaction does not develop. After a similar attack for several weeks, you need to follow a certain diet, which will help restore the body. Try not to eat certain foods (honey, nuts, milk, fish, eggs, fried and smoked dishes).
Assistance with allergic reactions to medication should be immediate. Especially if the drug was administered intravenously. Naturally, before using the drug, it is necessary to read its instructions, although certain reactions were observed even to antiallergic pills.
Resistance of the body in this case can cause serious consequences. The most common symptoms of this pathology are different skin rashes, bronchial asthma or rhinitis. Self-treatment in this case can not be engaged. Be sure to consult your doctor and go through a thorough diagnosis using all necessary samples. In addition, no longer take those drugs, after which you noted the appearance of symptoms.
An allergic reaction to the bite of a wasp or other insects is most often manifested as rash, itching and redness of the skin. In addition, some toxins that enter your body with saliva can cause a serious response, including angioedema and anaphylactic shock. In any case, you should first eliminate the sting of the insect. Next, apply a cold compress to the damaged area for 15-20 minutes - this will reduce the swelling. If the bite is on a limb, then try to put a tourniquet above this place so that the poison does not spread further. Do not forget to loosen it every 30 minutes. Allergic reactions to bites in children can be very difficult. In any case, you will have to use some antihistamines (“Fenistil”, “Zyrtec”). In addition, try to avoid insects.
If you are allergic to dust, pollen, or animal hair, you may experience a runny nose, cough, pain in the eyes, swelling of the mucous membranes of the airways, and angioedema. In this case, it is necessary to urgently eliminate the irritant, wash off the particles that cause the body's response from the body and clothing. You will definitely need to take antihistamines and call an ambulance (if the measures taken by yourself did not give effect).
You can remove the allergic reaction fairly quickly, but do not forget that this pathology should also be treated.
Features of treatment
So, you can eliminate the primary symptoms of allergy with the help of some drugs. However, it is impossible to leave the pathology without treatment. Only in this case, you can reduce the body's response to the stimulus at the next meeting with him. This is especially true of the response of the immune system to dust, insect bites, pollen, because these factors are completely impossible to eliminate.
So, the first rule of treatment is to avoid contact with the allergen. Next, you need to conduct a thorough diagnosis and only then move on to complex therapy. Drugs contribute to the elimination of symptoms, as well as reduce the degree of reaction of the body. The most effective are the following drugs: Claritin, Loratadin, Tavegil, Suprastin, Telfast. They apply first. These drugs block the action of histamine. Naturally, each of them has certain side effects (drowsiness, nervousness, dizziness), so the doctor should choose the most optimal and safest remedy.
If you have a stuffy nose or breathing difficulties, you will need the following drugs: Oxymetazoline, Pseudoephedrine. However, they have some contraindications (age up to 12 years, pregnancy and breastfeeding, hypertension). In addition, these medicines can not be taken for a long time.
For the treatment of allergic or ordinary asthma, the most commonly used inhibitor is "Singular". In addition to the presented drugs, there are other hormonal medications that can eliminate the symptoms of allergies. However, they should be taken only after consulting a doctor. Improper use of hormonal drugs can lead to unpredictable consequences.
In addition to medicines of direct action, you need to take vitamin complexes, immunotherapy procedures, which will help reduce the body's sensitivity to the allergen.
For the treatment of skin manifestations are used ointments and creams with simultaneous administration of oral agents. Early treatment will reduce the strength of the manifestation of the reaction.
Folk remedies and prevention of allergies
The pathology presented should always be under control. For this, various means are applied. If you have an allergic reaction, treatment can be popular. That is, home remedies also provide a good effect. Naturally, you need to consult with a doctor and use unconventional methods of eliminating allergies only after his permission. Otherwise, you can significantly worsen your condition. Your attention is the most effective recipes, long been tried by users.
1. Grind the egg shell with a coffee grinder and take a quarter of a teaspoon. For children, the dose can be reduced by half. In addition, try to dilute the raw material with a drop of lemon juice. Take this tool should be until the reaction disappears. That is, this method of treatment is suitable for those people who suffer from skin rashes.
2. Activated carbon will help to remove from the body some toxins that can cause allergies. However, it is better to use white tablets, as they are more effective. Take the medicine every morning. And it is not at all important how the reaction manifests itself. In addition, activated carbon can be drunk regardless of the type of allergy. If you have an acute attack, then a large number of tablets taken will help reduce the degree of reaction.
3. Hypericum will help reduce the manifestations of allergic rhinitis and tearing. To do this, you need to fill a half-liter jar with fresh grass, and fill it with alcohol (vodka). Infuse the mixture should be about three weeks in a cool place. Drink the mixture several times a day and 1 small spoon.
4. An effective tool for eliminating the skin manifestations of pathology is chalk. It is enough to periodically lubricate the affected areas. If the reaction is accompanied by severe itching, then it is better to first wipe the skin with hydrogen peroxide, and then sprinkle with powdered chalk.
5. Useful are garlic and celery. To do this, the plants need to squeeze the juice and put in the refrigerator. Take it should be a tablespoon several times a day before meals. This tool is suitable for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Garlic is better to grate on a fine grater.
6. Effectively a decoction, infusion and lotions of chamomile. They should be used to treat skin lesions.
Однако лечение - это не единственное, что вы должны делать. Для того чтобы аллергические приступы мучили вас как можно реже, необходимо проводить различные профилактические меры:
- избегайте каких-либо встреч с раздражителями,
- try to follow the diet prescribed by the doctor,
- refuse cigarettes and alcohol,
- exercise or sport
- try to carry out daily wet cleaning (if necessary, the procedure is carried out even several times).
Naturally, it is necessary to strengthen the immune system. To do this, use fresh vegetables and fruits, multivitamin complexes. At the first symptoms of allergy, try not to delay and use the antihistamine medicine prescribed by the doctor.
These tips will help you quickly cope with the reaction to an irritant and significantly reduce its manifestation. But it must be remembered: any treatment should be carried out only after consulting a doctor. Be healthy!
The concept and mechanism of development of allergies
In order to be able to provide an adequate first aid to the injured person, it is necessary to have an idea of what an allergy is and what the essence of this phenomenon is.
The cause of the development of various diseases in the body can be abnormal or infected cells that enter the human body. The immune system fights against diseases by producing special antibodies - T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, which fight against these cells, neutralizing and destroying them. Allergic reactions are specific reactions of the immune system to certain stimuli. Normally, a healthy body does not respond to such “provocations”, however, if a malfunction forms in the immune system, such things as dust, wool, and smells can be perceived by the body as antigens, that is, as pathogens.
In response to the ingress of these elements into the body, the appropriate mechanisms are triggered in it - the IgE immunoglobulin is produced. When IgE cells reach irritant cells, they combine with mast cells and basophils. As a result, the “IgE + mast cells + allergen” complex, or “basophil +“ IgE + allergen ”complex is formed. The first type of compounds remains in the organs, the second - circulates through the bloodstream, reaching the skin, lungs, stomach, skin. The body's primary reaction to an allergen is manifested by smooth muscle spasm, a decrease in blood pressure, the formation of edema, and a thickening of blood.
External manifestations and causes of pathology
The symptomatology of allergic reactions manifests itself in different ways - its specificity may depend on the type of allergens, as well as on the ways they get into the body. Allergens can enter the body through the skin, respiratory tract, sinuses, and digestive tract.
The most typical symptoms are:
- cough, shortness of breath,
- increased sneezing
- runny nose, nasal congestion, copious mucus from it,
- itchy nose
- redness of the eyes, itchy eyes, their strong tearing, eyelid edema,
- nausea, diarrhea, indigestion,
- redness and itching of the skin, rash,
- swelling of eyes, mucous membranes, lips, nose, neck, face,
- tingling of the mucous membranes of the mouth, numbness of the tongue.
Often, all of these manifestations are complemented by the development of anaphylactic shock — such a pathology threatens those affected by death, unless urgent measures are taken to help them. Anaphylactic shock manifests itself:
- severe swelling of the throat and respiratory tract, which is why a person cannot breathe normally,
- rash all over,
- redness and itching of the skin,
- feeling weak
- a sharp drop in blood pressure,
- abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting,
- weakening and accelerating the pulse
- loss of consciousness.
What can cause such a condition in humans? Allergen can be almost any environmental factor in food, fluid, air.
For example, household chemicals, latex, animal hair, dust, pollen, spores of fungi and mold, food, insect bites.
The symptomatology that accompanies the body's reaction to an allergen determines the form of the allergy - light or heavy.
Light form usually manifests itself:
- limited localized urticaria affecting the skin,
- allergic conjunctivitis,
- rhinitis (lesion of the mucous membranes of the nose, associated with constant congestion and enhanced separation of mucus).
Severe allergies do not just cause discomfort to the victim, but also represent a real danger to his life. She is accompanied by anaphylactic shock with a sharp decrease in blood pressure and impaired microcirculation in the internal organs, angioedema (spasm of the respiratory muscles, suffocation), generalized urticaria with intoxication syndrome.
What to do with a mild allergic injury
Usually, in such cases, itching and redness appear on the skin in contact with the allergen, the eyes begin to itch, and intense tearing is formed. In the affected area, slight swelling may be detected. A person feels a stuffy nose, his mucus is intensely separated, and he often sneezes.
In this case, first aid at home is to exclude the body’s contact with the allergen, as well as to reduce and reduce the unpleasant effects of such contact.
The mouth, nose, skin should be washed with warm water, and if an allergy appeared after an insect bite, you need to remove the sting from the wound. A cool compress is applied to the itchy area. Next, the affected should take antihistamines - loratadine, tavegil, Erius. Usually this sequence of actions is enough to cope with the pathological condition.
When do you need to call an ambulance?
After the first aid is provided to the person, the contact with the allergen is interrupted, the appropriate medications are taken, there must be an improvement in the condition and an alleviation of the symptoms.
The patient must immediately be taken to a medical institution to provide medical assistance if he has appeared:
- spasms in the throat,
- impaired respiratory function
- nausea and vomiting,
- severe swelling of the mucous membranes and skin,
- weakness and loss of consciousness
- increased heart rate
- drop in blood pressure.
How does a severe allergic reaction
The most dangerous for the affected angioedema. Especially often it appears in young women with allergies. Quincke edema is the edema of subcutaneous tissue and mucous tissues. As a result, a person has a violation of swallowing and respiratory function, developing asphyxiation, which can lead to death. Also, angioedema is accompanied by hoarseness, the appearance of coughing, asphyxiation, and an epileptic seizure may begin on its background.
Urticaria in severe forms characterized by blistering pink bright color throughout the body. Burning and itching is felt in the affected areas. A blistering fever and headache can occur along with the blisters.
Anaphylactic shock is manifested in each person differently, depending on the severity of the reaction. A red rash develops on the body, and the rash is very itchy. Edema appears in the area of the eyes, limbs and lips, the airways spasm. The affected person has nausea and vomiting, a metallic taste in the mouth. A person feels dizzy, may lose consciousness.
At the first symptoms of angioedema and anaphylactic shock, it is necessary to begin the first aid procedures for the injured person, otherwise he may simply not survive until the ambulance arrives (namely, it must be called first).
It is necessary to interrupt the entry of the allergen into the body. It is forbidden to eat. Orally, the patient can be given loratadine, however, for a better and faster effect, it is necessary to make an intramuscular injection of Dimedrol or suprastin. When food allergies, as with the drug, the patient is washed the stomach and give sorbents - enterosgel, smectu, activated carbon.
If you are allergic to bee sting, you must get rid of the source of the poison, remove the irritant from the skin. In acute cases, you can enter diphenhydramine or suprastin intravenously. With extensive skin lesions, urticaria needs to be given an intravenous injection of prednisone to the patient.
Anaphylactic shock requires gastric lavage, as well as a cleansing enema. In the place of skin contact with the allergen, it should be smeared with ointment with prednisone or hydrocortisone. After the allergen's access to the body is limited, the person must be laid on its side to prevent swallowing of the tongue and vomit. Above the site of an insect bite, a tourniquet is applied to the skin.
Intravenous or intramuscular injection of adrenaline, norepinephrine or mezaton is done, antihistamines are administered, for example, loratadine, lordestin.
If there are reactions on the face, the affected area should be cleaned with warm water. Then a cool compress is applied to the skin with a decoction of chamomile, sage or calendula. After the face is gently dried with paper napkins, it can be a little sprinkled with potato starch.
Such procedures are repeated several times over an hour or two. In addition, the patient is given a tablet of tavegil or suprastin.
When manifestations of allergic reactions in the child, it must be seated straight. If he is dizzy, the baby is laid on his back, turning his head to the side with nausea. In any form, the child should be given antihistamine medication, after which he should be urgently brought to the doctor.
First aid for allergies is aimed at saving the life of the victim. Assistance is aimed at eliminating the contact of the body with the allergen, reducing the manifestations of allergies, angioedema, anaphylactic shock. In this way, you can avoid the unpleasant consequences and even death of a person.
Basics of Allergy First Aid
The order of manipulations that should be undertaken when providing first aid during an attack depends on the type of allergy and the nature of the course. The action algorithm includes:
- Eliminating the effects of the allergen,
- Taking sensitizers
- Removal of symptoms.
Elimination of pathogenic effects of the allergen
An acute attack is characterized by a violent reaction on the part of the body, the first thing they do to alleviate the condition of the patient is to stop the exposure to the allergen (if possible). If the substance comes into contact with the skin or into the cavity of the nasopharynx, rinse thoroughly with water. Allergy to irritating odor will weaken if you open windows in the room or transfer the victim to another room.
When the cause of an allergic condition was an insect bite, it is recommended to carefully remove the sting, wash the wound with water and make a cold compress. With pronounced edema, ice is applied topically, lowering the temperature prevents the development of the reaction.
If an allergy has arisen on food, drinks, medicines, taken orally, it requires the early cessation of exposure to the allergen on the body. It is necessary to induce vomiting, after which the stomach is washed with plenty of water. Sorbents that reduce the concentration of the desensitizer in the intestine will be correct. Common dosage forms are activated charcoal, white coal, smectin.
The second step in helping with allergies at home is to reduce the negative response of the immune system with medications. The patient is given antihistamines, which reduce the negative manifestation of allergy and alleviate the patient's condition. Such tools reduce puffiness, relieve spasm, reduce the likelihood of complications.
Distinguish drugs of the first generation, which differ in speed of action, but at the same time have a number of side effects. These include Suprastin, Diazolin, Tavegil. These drugs are not suitable for long-term use and are not used in the treatment of allergies, but they give a good effect as a first aid.
Preparations of the second, third, fourth generation have a prolonged action and do not cause drowsiness, depression of cardiac activity and reaction from the nervous system. But with acute allergic reactions, they do not act quickly enough.
The next step is to provide the patient with the most comfortable position. In case of difficulty breathing, swelling, choking attacks, you should ensure the flow of oxygen, take off scarves, scarves, unbutton clothes. The victim needs to be laid, to provide plentiful drink.
Asthma attacks of allergic etiology are accompanied by spasm of the respiratory tract and asphyxia. In this case, the patient is shown inhalers containing medications that expand the bronchi and facilitate breathing. During an attack of breathlessness, the patient assumes a half-sitting position and helps with warm drinks and sedatives. Such a patient is under observation until the ambulance arrives.
If you are worried about severe itching, pronounced swelling of separate parts of the body - a cold compress will help, applications with antihistamine external agents (Fenistil gel).
Important! If the patient's condition is unstable, an ambulance should be urgently requested. Manifestations of allergies such as anaphylactic shock and angioedema are fatal and do not stop at home.
First Aid for Drug Allergy
The occurrence of an allergic response to medications complicates therapy and aggravates the patient's condition. Sometimes an allergy occurs after a time when a significant amount of histamine accumulates in the human body. It causes a negative reaction from the immune system.
Important! In order to prevent the negative effects of possible allergies to medications, their intake is combined with prophylactic doses of antihistamines (Diazolin, Suprastin).
At the first signs of desensitization of the body, the physical condition of the patient should be assessed and act depending on the severity of the situation. The following signs indicate a near-critical condition:
- The appearance of blisters on the skin, against the background of a sharp hyperemia,
- Swelling of the soft tissues, especially in the face (lips, eyelids, cheeks),
- Choking attacks when a person is unable to breathe,
- A sharp decrease in pressure, pulse, loss of consciousness.
When these symptoms appear, they urgently call a doctor. Before the ambulance arrives, the stomach is washed if the medicine is taken orally. They give adsorbents, provide plenty of drink, help the patient to take a comfortable position.
It is obligatory to take sensitizing agents of the first generation (Suprastin, Tavegil).
In the presence of an antagonist to the drug recommend its reception, it helps to reduce the severity of an allergic reaction.
Allergy to the skin of the face and body
Allergic reaction in many cases is manifested by hyperemia, itching, rashes of a different nature. The skin and mucosa are acutely responsive to the effects of desensitizing substances, which is accompanied by the presence of unpleasant symptoms.
When responding to the skin, it is recommended:
- If you experience severe allergic itching help cold compresses, funds with antihistamine components (Fenistil gel),
- Help with allergies in the form of edema is the use of cold compresses,
- It is recommended to cover the rash, peeling, cracks with a sterile dressing that will prevent infection of the affected surface.
If an itchy skin rash is the only sign, it is enough to exclude the cause and take any anti-allergy drug (Cetirizine, Chloropyramine).
Urticaria, which appears as blisters on a hyperemic background, is often accompanied by swelling on the face. This means that the patient is prone to serious allergies and requires the use of not only antihistamines, but also hormonal drugs. This treatment is prescribed by a doctor, but at home, if necessary, an injection of Prednisolone, Celeston, and Floosterone may be required.
Skin rashes and skin blisters lead to serious complications (toxicoderma, Lyell's syndrome, eczema). Preventing such a reaction is aided by the timely taking of sensitizers and the complex symptomatic treatment prescribed by the doctor. A part of such therapy and as a powerful antipruritic and anesthetic drug are hormone-based ointments (Sinaflan).
Important! A prerequisite for providing first aid for all types of allergies at home is the elimination of the desensitizer substance.
Features of first aid to children
First aid at home for children with allergies is to remove contact with the desensitizer. It is necessary to remove the fear from the child, to provide him with a comfortable position and access to oxygen.
If you are allergic to a local pathogen, for example, dust, animal hair, cosmetics, you should wash the skin or nasopharynx mucous with water, rid the child of the effects of irritants, give him sensitizing drugs in an age dosage. Locally for redness and skin rash, a cold compress or dressing with herbs decoction (chamomile, sage) is recommended.
When food allergies recommended plenty of drink, use clean boiled water, it is possible gastric lavage with the help of gag reflex. Then you should give the child activated or white coal.
Если ребенок задыхается, следует усадить его, обеспечить доступ кислорода, можно использовать ингаляторы с бронхолитическими препаратами.
При остром приступе, когда состояние ребенка тяжелое, его необходимо уложить, следить за дыханием и пульсом.
In all cases, it is obligatory to take antihistamines of the first generation, use tableted, encapsulated and liquid dosage forms. In an unconscious state, the drug should be diluted in water and poured into the mouth.
With the development of anaphylactic shock before the arrival of an ambulance, resuscitation measures may be required, such as an indirect cardiac massage and artificial respiration. For this, the child is shifted to a hard surface and rhythmic pressure is applied to the center of the chest. After every 8 movements, make an artificial breath, blowing air into the child’s lungs through the mouth. You should first make sure of the airway.
Important! Preventing allergies helps reduce the risk of acute reactions and reduces the risk of complications. Therefore, in the presence of a history of allergic reactions, doctors recommend prophylactic administration of sensitizing drugs during the flowering period and with possible contact with allergens.
How to distinguish the mild form of allergy from severe?
It is not always the penetration of negative agents into the body requires emergency care. It is necessary to stop allergies, but in each case you should act differently. A mild form of a negative reaction is characterized by the following manifestations:
- allergic conjunctivitis,
In the first case, the patient develops a runny nose. This is a pathological condition of a chronic nature that cannot be cured until the allergen has been removed. Allergic rhinitis affects exclusively the mucous membranes of the nasal sinuses. It does not extend to other parts of the body. The stronger the effect of the allergen, the more pronounced the symptoms. Teariness may be added to rhinitis.
When allergic conjunctivitis affects the organs of vision. The inflammatory process develops, puffiness appears, the sclera redden, pus is secreted in the corners of the eyes.
Allergic conjunctivitis cannot be cured by the traditional method, since it is important to exclude a negative agent.
The disease of the organs of vision develops much less frequently than rhinitis.
Urticaria in mild form is not dangerous. It is accompanied by a rash that appears on some parts of the body. This is a common type of allergy to medicines, food, household chemicals. If you do not reduce the concentration of allergen in the body, urticaria will spread throughout the body. When an allergic reaction of this type appear rash and itching. The shape of the spots usually resembles nettle marks.
Manifestations of severe allergies
The danger of such conditions is that the negative reaction of the body to an external agent develops very quickly. Severe allergies manifest themselves in different ways:
- Quincke swelling,
- anaphylactic shock,
- generalized urticaria.
In the first case, the work of the respiratory system is impaired, with edema that makes breathing difficult.
The risk of death in this case is extremely high.
Anaphylactic shock can develop with severe allergies. This condition is accompanied by deterioration of a number of body systems: blood circulation is disturbed and respiratory organs are hampered, pressure levels change, etc. The generalized urticaria affects the whole body. It is manifested by a rash, sometimes the size of the spots is very large. If a severe allergic reaction in the form of urticaria has developed, it is usually accompanied by an acute intoxication syndrome.
Symptoms of mild allergy, first aid
In order not to get lost in the event of signs of a negative reaction of the body to the penetration of a third-party agent, you need to get an idea of how this or that form of allergy manifests itself. Mild (rhinitis, conjunctivitis, urticaria, dermatitis) is usually characterized by a number of symptoms:
- low intensity rash,
- pimples and spots occur in certain areas without spreading to the whole body,
- with conjunctivitis and rhinitis, there is often tearing,
- slight puffiness may appear,
- with rhinitis, sneezing and nasal congestion are characteristic,
- if an insect has bitten, a red bump or blister will appear on the skin.
If any of the symptoms occur, it is recommended to do the following:
- First of all, it is necessary to eliminate the negative agent, after which the attack of allergy will gradually pass.
- If rhinitis or conjunctivitis has developed, wash the affected area with water, which will remove some of the allergen from the skin and mucous membranes.
- After an insect bite, a sting may remain, which must be removed, and the place of contact must be treated with alcohol. After that, make a cold compress, which will help remove puffiness and reduce the intensity of itching.
- With a mild form of dermatitis, as a rule, it is enough to eliminate the allergen, and soon the redness will pass. If you are allergic to a child, you can treat the affected area with an ointment with antipruritic and anti-inflammatory properties. This will avoid scratching, as children still do not know how to tolerate itching. Often use Bepanten, Fenistil.
- If an allergy appeared immediately after the penetration of a third-party agent into the body, it is important to take an antihistamine. The drug in this group will not allow allergens to spread. In addition, it relieves the symptoms that appear. Loratadine is one of such remedies (the drug does not help immediately, as it is characterized by a cumulative effect). Suprastin is another representative of the antihistamine group of drugs, which is characterized by a number of serious side effects, but acts quickly.
Usually, mild forms of allergy to drugs and other negative agents do not require the use of emergency measures. However, in some cases, for example, if allergies continue to develop, it is necessary to consult a doctor who will prescribe a treatment regimen.
Signs of severe allergies, first aid
In order not to miss the moment when the condition of the victim deteriorates significantly, you need to know when to call an ambulance. Dangerous symptoms:
- labored breathing,
- intense vomiting, constant feeling of nausea,
- severe abdominal pain,
- speech impairment, which may be caused by swelling,
- extensive redness and rash on the body,
- dizziness, general weakness,
- severe swelling, which is especially dangerous if it develops in several areas of the body,
- loss of consciousness.
Each of the severe forms of drug allergies and other negative factors is characterized by specific symptoms.
So, if you develop angioedema, while you can notice the following symptoms:
- violation of the respiratory system (hoarseness, cough, shortness of breath, asphyxia may occur),
- severe swelling
- epileptic seizure, which can be caused by respiratory failure.
This form of allergic reaction develops in children and adults, the cause - swelling of the mucous membranes, subcutaneous tissue. In this case, it is necessary to urgently call an ambulance, as a person may die. It is possible to alleviate his condition at home. We need to act consistently:
- If allergies suddenly begin, you can remove the choking attack by eliminating the negative agent that provoked such a condition.
- At the same time, an antihistamine is used: orally (Loratadin, Cetirizine), if the edema does not develop too much and the patient is able to swallow the pill, intramuscularly (Suprastin, Dimedrol), if you do not make an attack by other means, and the negative reaction develops rapidly.
- It is not recommended to take food, as food in the mouth with developing edema can provoke choking.
- If allergies begin abruptly, you need to know how to remove the strongest intoxication. In the hospital, they put a dropper, but at home you can speed up the process of removing toxins through sorbents. The patient needs to take Enterosgel, Smektu, Polisorb. The most effective are characterized by the last 2 of these funds.
Urticaria symptoms, first aid
Main signs: a rash on the body, resembling traces of nettle, sometimes there are bumps (bumps), blisters. Along with this there is a strong itch. In some cases, the temperature rises. In the mild form of an allergic reaction, the spots gradually disappear on their own, but if generalized urticaria develops, the symptoms do not go away on their own, the intensity of these manifestations will increase.
In the case when the number of negative agents in the body is quite large, signs of allergies can persist for several months. Take emergency measures to relieve symptoms partially or completely. First aid for an allergic reaction, manifested in the form of urticaria:
- Eliminate the allergen. If we consider that urticaria often develops as a result of taking inappropriate medication, you need to stop drug therapy. In case of chemical exposure to the organism, it is necessary to leave the place where contact with the negative agent occurred.
- Severe urticaria must be accompanied by the intake of sorbents.
- Additionally, do an enema, wash the stomach. It is advisable to perform these actions if the allergen has penetrated the body through the digestive system: the product, the drug.
- Symptoms relieve antihistamines.
The rapid effect of the treatment can be ensured on the condition that the patient is given a dropper in the inpatient unit of the hospital.
In this case, the toxins will immediately begin to leave the body.
Symptoms of anaphylactic shock, first aid
This condition develops instantly. The reasons are usually foods, insect venom, drugs.
Recognize anaphylactic shock can be on the following grounds:
- swelling in the organs of sight, mouth, respiratory tract,
- external symptoms of allergies: rash, itching,
- in some cases, there is severe vomiting, nausea,
- the patient feels an irrational fear
- there is a taste of metal in the mouth,
- weakness, fainting against hypotension.
If this form of allergy has developed, what to do? The basic rules that allow in particularly severe cases to save the life of a child or adult:
- If it is known which allergen has entered the body, it must be eliminated.
- In the case when a negative agent got into the digestive system, you need to flush the stomach, do an enema.
- It is necessary to remove signs of intoxication using sorbents.
- In direct contact with the allergen, the skin is treated with hydrocortisone or prednisone. It uses drugs in the form of ointment.
- If there is intense vomiting, the person must be laid on its side. In this case, it is important to exclude the possibility of swallowing the tongue or vomiting in the respiratory tract.
- In the case when anaphylactic shock was triggered by an insect bite, you need to remove the sting, if it is still in the body. Then put a tourniquet above the bite. This measure will prevent the spread of the allergen.
- A dose of adrenaline, noradrenaline or mezaton is administered.
- In anaphylactic shock, prednisolone and glucose are indicated. Substances administered intravenously.
- When blood pressure returns to normal, antihistamines can be given. They are recommended to be administered intramuscularly or intravenously.
Manifestations of rash and first aid
Severe allergies can develop with contact dermatitis, eczema. This happens for two reasons: in case of hypersensitivity of the organism to the effects of a third-party agent of a certain type, if a person has been in contact with an allergen for a long period. Symptoms of this condition:
- inflammatory process develops, covering the skin,
- extensive lesions appear: spots, rashes, crusts,
- skin may peel off, dryness occurs,
- spots and pimples are gradually transformed into blisters,
- in the presence of severe itching, there is a violation of the integrity of the eruptions, which leads to the formation of ulcers if a secondary infection joins,
- often the blisters themselves burst as they increase, then a large number of weeping wounds appear on the body.
If you are interested in the question of how to stop the development of this pathological process, you need to remember the rules for performing first aid:
- Eliminate the allergen.
- It is necessary to treat the affected areas with antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic properties. Therapy for such allergies should be aimed at relieving the patient's condition: it is important to remove the acute manifestations of the inflammatory process that develops on the skin.
- Rinse the lesions with water.
- If you make compresses, it is permissible to use natural fabrics, as it is important to ensure air access to the affected skin.
- Take antihistamines orally. You can use drugs local action, which along with other properties eliminate the signs of allergies.
Forms of manifestation
Allergies can have a different course, and this has a direct effect on the symptoms of the disease.
Mild forms of allergy usually manifest themselves in the following types:
- limited urticaria - is the defeat of the mucous membranes and skin,
- allergic conjunctivitis - damage to the conjunctiva of the eyes,
- allergic rhinitis - damage to the nasal mucosa.
Severe forms of allergic reactions are a real danger to human health and life and require emergency medical care.
- anaphylactic shock - is a sharp decrease in blood pressure and problems in microcirculation in organs,
- Quincke's edema - manifested in the form of spasm of the respiratory muscles and the onset of suffocation, which is a real danger to life,
- generalized urticaria - accompanied by the development of intoxication syndrome.
Photo: Quincke Edema
How does the light form, and what to do
With the development of light allergic reactions usually appear such symptoms:
- slight itching on the skin in contact with the allergen,
- tearing and slight itching around the eyes,
- unexpressed reddening of a limited area of skin,
- slight swelling or swelling,
- runny nose and nasal congestion
- constant sneezing
- blistering in the area of insect bites.
If you experience these symptoms, you need to do the following:
- thoroughly rinse the area with the allergen - nose, mouth, skin, with warm water;
- eliminate contact with the allergen,
- if an allergy is associated with an insect bite and a sting remains in the affected area, it must be carefully removed,
- apply a cool compress to an itchy area of the body,
- Take the drug against allergies - loratadine, zyrtek, telfast.
If a person’s condition worsens, you should contact an ambulance or go to a medical facility yourself.
Common symptoms that require an ambulance
There are allergy symptoms that require immediate medical attention from a specialist:
- respiratory failure, dyspnea,
- cramps in the throat, a feeling of closing the airways,
- nausea and vomiting,
- pain in the abdomen,
- hoarseness, speech problems,
- swelling, redness, itching of large areas of the body,
- weakness, dizziness, anxiety,
- increased heart rate and palpitations,
- loss of consciousness.
This is a fairly common form of allergy in people, while most often it is observed in young women.
The patient is swelling of the subcutaneous tissue and mucous membranes. With swelling of the throat there are problems with breathing and swallowing.
If time does not provide medical care, a person may die of asphyxiation.
The main symptoms of angioedema include the following:
- respiratory failure,
- hoarseness and cough,
- epileptic seizure,
- swelling of the skin.
With the development of urticaria on the skin appear blisters of bright pink color, which are accompanied by burning and itching.
After a few hours they turn pale, and then completely disappear.
Along with the development of these symptoms, headaches and fever appear.
Such a process may continue uninterruptedly or have a wavelike course over several days. In some cases, it lasts several months.
The symptoms of this condition can manifest themselves in different ways - it all depends on the severity of the allergic reaction.
As a rule, such manifestations are characteristic of anaphylaxis:
- red rash accompanied by severe itching
- swelling around the eyes, lips and limbs,
- constriction, puffiness, airway spasms,
- nausea and vomiting,
- feeling of a lump in the throat,
- taste of metal in the mouth,
- feeling of fear
- a sharp decrease in blood pressure, which can provoke dizziness, weakness, loss of consciousness.
Severe skin rashes can manifest as eczema.
This condition is characterized by inflammation of the upper layers of the skin. Eczema is usually accompanied by severe itching and has a long course with periods of exacerbations.
A severe rash can also manifest as atopic dermatitis.
Для этого заболевания характерно развитие эритемы с ярким покраснением отдельных участков кожи и сильным отеком тканей.
Subsequently, such dermatitis can lead to blistering, which, after opening, leaves weeping erosion.
In no case should the treatment of this disease be postponed, since it may precede anaphylactic shock.
Ambulance for allergic reactions that are accompanied by angioedema should consist in the implementation of the following measures:
- the termination of receipt of the allergen in the body.
- refusal to eat.
- the introduction of antihistamine drugs. Orally, you can use loratadine or cetirizine, intramuscularly usually prescribed suprastin or diphenhydramine.
- use of sorbents. In this case, enterosgel, activated carbon, smecta will do. You can also make a man cleansing enema.
When symptoms of urticaria appear, you need to act according to the following scenario:
- stop taking medication
- if you are allergic to food, take a sorbent - white coal or enterosgel. You can also drink a laxative drug and wash the stomach,
- when insect bites should get rid of the source of the poison,
- when contact allergies appear, the irritant must be removed from the surface of the skin.
Intravenous, you can enter tavegil, suprastin or dimedrol.
If extensive skin areas are affected, intravenous prednisone is indicated.
If the necessary drugs are not available, you need to wash the stomach, do a cleansing enema, give the patient activated charcoal.
Also in the area of contact with the allergen, you can lubricate the skin with an ointment containing hydrocortisone or prednisolone.
You should also carry out the following sequence of actions:
- stop allergen access,
- put a person in such a way as to exclude the dropping of the tongue and the ingestion of vomit,
- put a tourniquet above the site of an insect bite or use a drug,
- intravenous or intramuscular injection of adrenaline, mezaton or norepinephrine,
- Intravenous to enter prednisone with glucose solution,
- Intravenous or intramuscular injection of antihistamines after normalization of blood pressure.
Before determining the allergen, you can resort to local remedies for the treatment of allergic rashes.
Therapy should be aimed at eliminating puffiness and reducing the sensation of itching of the skin.
To do this, you can moisten the affected areas with cold water or use a cool compress.
To avoid the spread of allergic rash, you need to protect the affected skin from external factors.
You should also limit the contact of affected areas with water. It is very important that the skin is in contact only with natural cotton fabric.
What to do when responding to:
If an allergy to the sun led to loss of consciousness, you should immediately call an ambulance.
Before the arrival of doctors, you must provide assistance to the victim:
- try to bring a person to consciousness.
- It is important to ensure that clothing is loose and does not irritate the skin.
- provide enough water to make up for a lack of fluid in the body.
- if the temperature exceeds 38 degrees, you need to put a cool compress on the forehead, legs, groin. If possible, it is necessary to use antipyretic drugs - paracetamol or ibuprofen.
- with the appearance of vomiting person to turn on its side.
Should I use polysorb for allergies? The answer is here.
Allergy to bee sting is observed in about 2% of people. And at the first bite the reaction may not appear.
If there is a tendency to allergies, anaphylactic shock can develop with insect bites in humans.
In this case, it is necessary to urgently appeal to the ambulance, and before her arrival the following measures should be done:
- put and cover a person
- give the victim several antihistamine tablets,
- in the absence of edema of the pharynx and tongue, you can give him strong sweet tea or coffee,
- If breathing or heartbeat stops, artificial respiration and a closed heart massage should be performed.
The rules for helping with food allergies depend on the severity of the reaction. When symptoms appear that threaten life, you should immediately call an ambulance.
In other cases, you can:
- use sorbents - white coal, enterosgel.
- take an antihistamine - cetirizine, desloratadine, loratadine.
- with significant skin damage and severe itching, antihistamines of the first generation are used - suprastin.
- in case of severe allergies hormonal preparations are shown. - dexamethasone, prednisone.
- ointment is used to eliminate skin manifestations - Fenistil, bepanten, skin cap. In difficult cases, you can use hormonal preparations of local action - hydrocortisone or prednisone ointment.
How to help the child
First aid for allergies in a child is to implement such activities:
- put the baby straight - usually this position helps to ease breathing. If dizziness occurs, it should be put on the bed. If nausea is present, turn your head to the side.
- Give the child an antihistamine in any form - syrup, tablets, capsules. If the baby cannot swallow or fainted, the pill needs to be crushed, mixed with water and poured into his mouth.
- if the child has lost consciousness, you need to constantly check his pulse, breathing, pupils. If the child does not breathe or does not feel the pulse, he should immediately begin resuscitation - artificial respiration and heart massage.
What to do when there is a sharp reaction on the face
Emergency help with the appearance of rashes on the face is:
- cleansing the affected area,
- then a cool compress based on a decoction of sage, calendula or chamomile should be applied to cleansed skin,
- the gauze needs to be changed every two minutes,
- the total duration of the procedure should be ten minutes
- after that, the face can be dried and powdered with potato or rice starch - these tools will help eliminate redness and swelling,
- the procedure must be repeated several times within an hour.
Do not neglect also antihistamines. If you experience an allergy on the face, you can take tavegil, suprastin, loratadine. If the reaction does not pass, you should immediately consult a doctor.
What should always be in the first-aid kit
The following medications should always be present in the first aid kit of a person prone to allergic reactions:
- general antihistamine drug - cetirizine, loratadine, etc.,
- antiallergic agent for topical administration - hydrocortisone ointment, elokom,
- hormonal anti-inflammatory drug for the relief of attacks of acute allergies - prednisone.
For people who have suffered anaphylactic shock at least once, doctors recommend that you always carry a syringe with adrenaline.
This will allow others to assist the person in the development of severe allergies.
What to do if the first-aid kit is not at hand
In case of a mild allergic reaction, it is enough to exclude contact with the allergen.
To eliminate the rash and reduce swelling, you can use folk remedies:
If there is a severe allergy, in no case can not be self-medicated.
In such a situation, you should immediately contact an ambulance or take the victim to the hospital - any delay can be fatal.
Should I prescribe a drop from allergies to the nose? Follow the link.
What is itching allergy ointment? Learn more.
What is strictly forbidden to do
With the development of anaphylactic shock and other severe allergic reactions can not:
- Leave the man alone.
- Give it to drink or eat.
- Enclose any objects under the head, as this can lead to increased respiratory failure.
- Giving antipyretic when feverish.
If allergy is associated with intravenous administration of the medication, you do not need to remove the needle from the vein. In this case, it is enough to stop the administration of the drug, and use the syringe in a vein to introduce an allergy medication.
Properly and promptly provided assistance in case of an allergic reaction can save a person’s life.
Therefore, when the appearance of:
- severe skin rash,
- respiratory failure
- blood pressure drop
It is necessary to immediately call an ambulance and take all necessary actions before her arrival.
What are the signs of an allergic reaction?
An allergic reaction is an increased sensitivity of the immune system, which develops when you re-contact with any allergen. Statistics show that about a quarter of all people on the planet suffer from allergy symptoms. However, many people think that it appears only as a rash on the skin, but this is far from the case.
An allergic reaction of the immediate type can be manifested by the appearance of lesions of various localization, which can occur both at the point of contact with the causative allergen and at any other part of the skin. It is a blistering that visually resembles a stinging nettle (hence, it is called “urticaria”). A more severe form of an allergic reaction is angioedema, which increases the size of the lips, tongue, swelling of the face, narrows the lumen of the eyes and in some cases the larynx, which leads to difficulty breathing (and sometimes complete asphyxiation). Anaphylactic shock is an acute violation of the blood circulation of all organs and systems, accompanied by a drop in pressure and a lack of consciousness. Without treatment, the patient may die.
In addition, a person may develop allergic diseases that last for years and force him to take special medicines during periods of exacerbations. These include allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, and bronchial asthma. All of them are chronic, that is, having appeared once, they pursue a person for a very long time. Sometimes self-healing occurs, very often it concerns children who, as they say, “outgrow” the disease.
To date, the arsenal of tools that can provide first aid for allergies is very wide. However, the most initial stage in the treatment of a person is not drugs, but the cessation of contact with the allergen that caused the exacerbation. Sometimes the patient needs only to leave the place where the cat lives, and he stops sneezing and coughing. If an exacerbation develops as a result of contact with the pollen of a plant, then it is necessary to rinse the eyes with clean water and the nose with a saline solution and try to isolate it from yourself or yourself from it (as it happens). If the cause of the skin rash is a food product, then removing it is much more difficult, especially if it has already been absorbed through the intestinal mucosa into the blood.
The most common means of assistance in this case are special allergy pills or antihistamines. They block the production of histamine, which causes the appearance of all the symptoms specific to this condition (rash, itching, swelling, discharge from the eyes and nose, etc.).
There are 3 generations of antihistamine drugs:
- First generation. It is presented to all well-known drugs, such as diphenhydramine, suprastin, Tavegil. The effect of their use comes quickly, but it does not last long (2-4 hours) and is accompanied by such side effects as drowsiness, weakness, dizziness. Ideal for first aid for allergies, but not suitable for long-term treatment.
- Second generation These include such drugs, Claritin, Lominal, Claridol, Zodak, Fenistil, etc. They are deprived of the sedative effect that is characteristic of first-generation drugs, but with prolonged therapy they can cause heart complications. Require a double admission during the day.
- Third generation The most modern, effective drugs, with minimal side effects and a duration of 24 hours. These include Suprastinex, Cetrin, etc.
Each group of drugs has its pros and cons. In addition, the sensitivity to them is different for everyone, so what helped one is not always effective for another.
In the case when an allergic reaction is not stopped by taking antihistamine pills, doctors prescribe a similar drug as an injection (as this has higher bioavailability), or one or three times a course of glucocorticosteroid drugs (prednisone, dexamethasone). The latter cause people to have unfounded fears, sometimes people are even afraid of such therapy. However, doctors assure: the injection of prednisolone can stop an acute allergic reaction, but it will not affect the health, will not cause weight gain, the appearance of stretch marks and other unpleasant symptoms, which many people associate with hormones.
Allergy ointment is used in the case when an undesirable reaction affects only the skin. This may be an allergic reaction of the type of urticaria, contact dermatitis, exacerbation of atopic dermatitis. In any case, the rash, which at the same time appears, torments the patient very much: it itches, itches, the skin "burns". In this case, there are two types of therapy:
antihistamines for application to the skin (Fenistil, etc.),
glucocorticosteroid drugs (Advantan, Akriderm, Hydrocortisone, etc.).
They can be applied to the affected skin without fear of complications. They are not absorbed into the blood and do not cause side effects.
Allergy Eye Drops
Allergic conjunctivitis is a common disease in which a person develops tearing, eye redness and itching when in contact with an allergen. Most often, they are brought there by hand (for example, he stroked the cat, and then rubbed his eyes). Therefore, the first aid for allergies of this type is washing the eyes with clean (preferably boiled water). It becomes much easier for many after that. However, in the case when allergic conjunctivitis often exacerbates and the causative allergen cannot be established, special allergy eye drops will help.
They are represented by the following species:
- antihistamines in the form of eye drops (lecrolin, ketotifen, opatanol, etc.).
- vasoconstrictor eye drops (Vizin, Okumentil, etc.),
- corticosteroid drugs in the form of eye drops (Lotoprednol).
In this case, self-medication is unacceptable, therefore, only the ophthalmologist or allergist should prescribe the above drugs.
Nose drops should be picked up by a doctor
Allergy nose drops
Allergic rhinitis is more common than conjunctivitis. Exacerbations are manifested by itching, sneezing, nasal discharge after contact with an allergen. In this case, the patient scratches the tip of the nose so that he reflexively makes a movement characteristic of this disease: rub his inner side of the palm upwards. Allergy nasal drops are also several groups of drugs:
- vasoconstrictor nasal drops (Nazivin, Xilen, Naphthyzin, etc.) and antiallergic nasal drops (Vibrocil) are suitable for helping with an acute condition, since the effect of their use occurs within a few minutes,
- nasal drops based on glucocorticosteroids (Nasonex) are suitable for long-term therapy aimed at reducing the allergic mood of the nasal mucosa. To relieve acute symptoms of exacerbation of rhinitis are not suitable.
Today, the pharmaceutical industry produces a lot of allergy medications that allow you to take this disease under control and provide timely assistance in case of deterioration. However, before applying it is necessary to discuss important issues with the doctor, since each of them has its own contraindications and side effects.
Remember: your health is in your hands. Treat it consciously. Install the Medical Note mobile application - and monitor the health of the whole family for 365 days a year! Be healthy!
The main types of allergic reactions
One of the most severe allergic conditions is angioedema. Its danger lies in the fact that swelling of the skin of the face and neck can lead to suffocation and death.
Symptoms of angioedema:
- breathing becomes whistling and difficult
- the skin of the neck, face and limbs is covered with a strong operemia,
- the patient is tormented by severe headaches,
- swelling accompanied by hoarseness of voice,
- integuments turn blue and turn pale,
- the patient has a fever.
Slightly less danger compared with anaphylactic shock and angioedema is urticaria. It is caused by the same allergens. When it is impossible to determine the allergen, the urticaria could well be caused by nervous disorders, stress, and anxiety. Then practice the use of sedatives, which are based on natural herbs, until the symptoms disappear.
- bright pink blisters appear that cause itching and burning,
- after two or three hours of blistering, then they become paler and go away completely,
- parallel fever and headache occur,
Подобный процесс может длиться или возникать периодическими вспышками несколько дней и в некоторых случаях и несколько месяцев.
Основные действия до приезда скорой помощи
Больной не должен больше контактировать с аллергеном, от которого пошла аллергическая реакция. In the event that a human has been bitten by an insect, the poison must be removed from the wound, most likely this will have to be done by squeezing or sucking, and the sooner the better. When the reaction is triggered by taking medication or food, an emetic reflex is needed, a cleansing enema, gastric lavage will also help the patient. In those situations when allergies caused the smell, the best way out will be airing the room.
The first manifestations of allergic reactions should be eliminated by some of the antiallergic antihistamines: in such cases, suprastin, diazolin, phencarol, telfast, loratadine, zyrtec, tavegil and many others are used.
The patient urgently needs a comfortable, comfortable posture: most likely the victim should be laid down with a pillow under his head or a small roller - this will give blood flow to the organs. In addition, it is important for the victim to ensure maximum air flow to the lungs. If you apply a cold to the area of contact with the allergen, it will help to slow down the course of immune reactions.
When you stop breathing, the patient needs immediate artificial respiration.
If the heart has stopped, you need an immediate indirect heart massage.